Saturday 3 December 2016
The Study of The Doubts Cast on the 92ND Sermon of Nahj Al-Balaaqeh
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The Study of The Doubts Cast on the 92ND Sermon of Nahj Al-Balaaqeh

The Statement of the Doubt

The Sermon 92

Analysis and Discussion

The selection and appointment of the Imam is done by God, and establishing a government in done by people 's request.

-         The selection and installation of the vicegerent and Imam from the viewpoint of the Quran.

·        The story of Prophet Adam and Prophet David (peace be upon them)

·        The verse " إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الأَْرْضِ خَلِيفَة" (I am making you a vicegerent on the earth) is evidence that the Imam and vicegerent is installed (by God)

·        The selection and installation of a vicegerent in the Tradition of the Prophet (God bless him and his Family)

·        The selection and installation of the vicegerent is done only by God

1.      الأمر إلى الله يضعه حيث يشاء

الملك لله يجعله حيث يشاء2.                   

إنما ذلك إلى الله عز وجل يجعله حيث يشاء3.                      

Examining the jurisdiction of the Imam

1.     Mediation of the emanation (of God) to all the existence

·         Proving the mediation of emanation through Quranic evidence

·         Proving the mediation of emanation through narrations

-         Examining the chain of this narration

 

2.     Guiding the people

3.     Scientific Authority

·        The Scientific Authority of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in the words of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)

a.     The Narration of Thaqalayn

-         The indication of the Narration of Thaqalayn as to the scientific authority of the Family of the Prophet (God bless them all)

b.     The Family of the Prophet are the authority of settling disputes

c.      Imam Ali (peace be upon him) the gate to the city of knowledge (i.e. the Messenger of God)

-         The analysis of this narration.

·        The scientific authority of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as described by the Prophet 's Companions and second generation Muslims

a.     Ayesheh: "Ali is the most knowledgeable of the people about the Prophet 's Tradition"

b.     Ibn Abbass: "Ali has all the knowledge there is!"

c.      Saeed ibn Musayeb: "None of the Companions except for Ali has ever said: "ask me!""

d.     Omar: "May God save me from problems in which Ali would not help me!"

e.      The great companions referred to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in their problems

f.       Protecting the religion

g.     Spreading justice

h.     How worthy is the vote of people in an Islamic regime?

 

The study of the doubts cast on the 92nd sermon of Nahj Al-Balaaqeh

The first doubt: Imam Ali 's declining vicarage in the beginning of the vicarage

Response:

1.     The wrong changes made in the eras of the other vicegerents was the reason of declining vicarage

2.     Deviations made by the previous vicegerents

·        The prayers at night in Ramadan

·        Temporary wives and temporary marriage in the time of Hajj

·        Attributing fabricated narrations to the Messenger of God indicating that Prophets do not leave anything as inheritance

·        Deviating the tradition of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)

The second doubt: the rejection of conditioned vicarage is not in contrast with the verse: "… وَ ما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لا مُؤْمِنَةٍ"

Response

The third doubt: Did Imam Ali (peace be upon him) have any preconditions for accepting vicarage?

Response

The fourth doubt: wasn 't declining the vicarage a kind of evading responsibility by Imam Ali (peace be upon him)?

Response:

A response to the similar doubts as the ones cast on the 92nd sermon

Conclusion 

The study of the doubts cast on the 92nd sermon of Nahj Al-Balaaqeh

 

The Statement of the Doubt

One of the doubts case by the Wahhabites on this sermon is the following:

"if vicarage and Imamat were a Divine responsibility and the Imam were to be selected and installed by God, then why did Imam Ali (peace be upon him) declined it after Othman 's death and did not accept the position of vicarage until people insisted so much, and then he told the people:

"دعوني والتمسوا غيري ... وأنا لكم وز`يراً خيراً لكم مني اميراً وان تركتموني فأنا كاحدكم وأسمعكم وأطوعكم"

"Leave me be and go to another (and make another one your vicegerent) … it is better for you if I am your advisor and minister than a ruler and vicegerent""[1]

 

The Sermon 92

دَعُونِى وَالَْتمِسُوا غَيْرِى فَإِنَّا مُسْتَقْبِلُونَ أَمْراً لَهُ وُجُوهٌ وَأََلْوَانٌ لَا تَقُومُ لَهُ الْقُلُوبُ وَلَا تَثْبُتُ عَلَيْهِ الْعُقُولُ وَ إِنَّ الآفَاقَ قَدْ أَغَامَتْ وَالَْمحَجَّةَ قَدْ تَنَكَّرَتْ. وَاعْلَمُوا أَنِّى إِنْ أَجَبْتُكُمْ رَكِبْتُ بِكُمْ مَا أَعْلَمُ وَلَمْ أُصْغِ إِلَى قَوْلِ الْقَائِلِ وَعَتْبِ الْعَاتِبِ وَإِِنْ تَرَكْتُمُونِى فَأَنَا كَأَحَدِكُمْ ولَعَلِّى أَسْمَعُكُمْ وَأَطْوَعُكُمْ لِمَنْ وَلَّيْتُمُوهُ أَمْرَكُمْ وَأَنَا لَكُمْ وَزِيراً خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ مِنِّى أَمِيراً.

"Leave me be and go to another [and make another one your vicegerent] for this is an undertaking which is of different colors. It does not stay as one expects and its hardships do not last. Verily everywhere has been concealed by clouds of tumult and the righteous path has been left undistinguished from the wrong path. You should know that id I accept your request I will treat you the way I will and I will not listen to the criticisms [of those who bear me ill-will]. If you leave me be, then I will be just like one of you. However, [if you choose me as vicegerent then] I am more knowledgeable more obedient (toward God) than anyone else that you might want to make guardian of your affairs. But if I am your advisor and minister, it is better for you than if I am your ruler and governor."[2]

 

Analysis and Discussion

To respond to this doubt first we have to shed proper light on a few issues which are as follows:

 

The selection and appointment of the Imam is done by God, and establishing a government in done by people 's request.

It should be noted that the issue of Imamat is different from the issue of government; this is because Imamat is a Divine station, but government is one of the standards of Imamat; therefore, anyone who is installed by God in this station is the Imam, whether people accept or not. So people 's will and acceptance plays no role in the selection and installation of the Imam, as they have no role in the selection and the installation of the Prophet. But the fact that Imam Ali was not willing to accept people 's allegiance (to become the vicegerent and ruler) is not in contrast with his right as the Imam, since accepting people 's allegiance to become the ruler and head of the government, first requires people to be ready for such a government. But an Imam who is installed by God, just like a Prophet, does not need people 's readiness or their acceptance. This is just like the story of the Prophet who, during the 13-year period when he was Prophet and was living in Mecca and before his migration to Medina, did not establish an Islamic government, since the grounds were not prepared for such a government to be established in Mecca.

 

-         The selection and installation of the vicegerent and Imam from the viewpoint of the Quran.

The Glorified God has attributed the selection and installation of the vicegerent and leader to himself in the Holy Quran, and insists about the selection of the Prophet and vicegerent that:

اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ حَيْثُ يَجْعَلُ رِسالَتَه‏. الأنعام/124.

"Allah knoweth best where (and how) to carry out His mission."


He also states, in numerous instances, elsewhere in the Holy Quran about the installation of the Imam that:

َإِذْ قالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الأَْرْضِ خَلِيفَة. البقرة/30.

"Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth.""

وَجَعَلْناهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنا. الأنبياء/73.

"And We made them leaders, guiding (men) by Our Command"

وَنُريدُ أَنْ نَمُنَّ عَلَى الَّذينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَنَجْعَلَهُمْ أَئِمَّةً وَنَجْعَلَهُمُ الْوارِثين‏. القصص/5.

" And We wished to be Gracious to those who were being depressed in the land, to make them leaders (in Faith) and make them heirs,"

 

·   The story of Prophet Adam and Prophet David (peace be upon them)

The evidence which exists o the Divine installation of the Imam is so massive, it can 't be contained and presented in this paper. Here, we will very briefly refer to and study some of it.

 

God says in this regard:

وَإِذْ قالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الأَْرْضِ خَلِيفَة البقرة/30.

"Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth.""

 

He also says elsewhere in the Holy Quran, in a verse about the story of Prophet David, that:

يا داوُدُ إِنَّا جَعَلْناكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الأَْرْضِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَ لا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوى.‏ ص/ 26.

"O David! We did indeed make thee a vicegerent on earth: so judge thou between men in truth (and justice) Nor follow thou the lusts (of thy heart)"

 

·       The verse " إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الأَْرْضِ خَلِيفَة" (I am making you a vicegerent on the earth) is evidence that the Imam and vicegerent is installed (by God)

Abu-Abdullah Qartaby, the prominent Sunnite commentator, while commenting on the verse 30 of Surah Bagharah (about the story of Prophet Adam (peace be upon him)) states that this verse is basically a proof that the Imam and vicegerent are installed by God. He writes in this regard:

 هذه الآية أصل في نصب إمام وخليفة يسمع له ويطاع لتجتمع به الكلمة وتنفذ به أحكام الخليفة ولا خلاف في وجوب ذلك بين الأمة ولا بين الأئمة... .

"This verse is evidence as to the Divine installation of the Imam and the vicegerent whose words must be listened to and whose orders must be obeyed, to create unity amongst people and thus the orders of a vicegerent are obligatory to be obeyed and there is not disagreement among Muslim people or Muslims leaders as to the necessity of Imamat".[3]

 

Further, he claims the following verse to be a decree as to the necessity of the installation of the Imam and the vicegerent:

ودليلنا قول الله تعالى : «إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الأَْرْضِ خَلِيفَة» وقوله تعالى : «وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الأَْرْضِ» أي يجعل منهم خلفاء إلى غير ذلك من الآي.

"and our reason for this claim is the following verses by God that: " إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الأَْرْضِ خَلِيفَة " (I will create a vicegerent on earth) and also " وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الأَْرْضِ " (Allah has promised, to those among you who believe and work righteous deeds, that He will, of a surety, grant them in the land, inheritance (of power)) which means that he will choose and appoint from among them (those who had believed and done good deeds) some as vicegerents. There are also other verses in this regard …"[4]

 

He goes on, then, so far as he claims Imamat to be one of the pillars of the religion:

فدل على وجوبها وأنها ركن من أركان الدين الذي به قوام المسلمين.

"… These pieces of evidence then indicate that Imamat is obligatory and that it is one of the pillars of the religion to which the endurance of the Muslim community is dependant".[5]

God also says about the Prophethood of the Prophet Ibrahim that:

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنا نُوحاً وَإِبْراهيمَ وَجَعَلْنا في‏ ذُرِّيَّتِهِمَا النُّبُوَّةَ وَ الْكِتاب‏. الحديد/ 26.

"And We sent Noah and Abraham, and established in their line Prophethood and Revelation"

 

As he says, elsewhere, about his Imamat that:

إِنِّي جاعِلُكَ لِلنَّاسِ إِماماً قالَ وَ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتي‏ قالَ لا يَنالُ عَهْدِي الظَّالِمين‏. البقره/124.

"He [God] said: "I will make thee an Imam to the Nations." He pleaded: "And also (Imams) from my offspring!" He answered: "But My Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers.""

 

Also Quran narrates the story of Moses when he asked God to appoint his successor and the leader after him:

وَاجْعَلْ لي‏ وَزيراً مِنْ أَهْلي‏. ‏طه/ 29.

"And give me a Minister from my family"

 

And God also answers him that:

قَالَ قَدْ أُوتِيتَ سُؤْلَكَ يَامُوسى‏. طه/ 36.

"(Allah) said: "Granted is thy prayer, O Moses!""

And God says elsewhere about the Prophets of Bani-Israel that:

لَقَدْ أَخَذْنا ميثاقَ بَني‏ إِسْرائيلَ وَ أَرْسَلْنا إِلَيْهِمْ رُسلاً. المائدة/ 70.

"We took the covenant of the Children of Israel and sent them messengers"

 

And he also says about the Imams and leaders of Bani-Israel that:

وَ جَعَلْنا مِنْهُمْ أَئِمَّةً يَهْدُونَ بِأَمْرِنا . السجدة/24.

"And We appointed, from among them, leaders, giving guidance under Our command"

 

As it is clear, in all these verse God has attributed the installation of all these Imamas and leaders to himself, as he had attributed the selection, installation and sending of the Prophets to himself before that.

 

·       The selection and installation of a vicegerent in the Tradition of the Prophet (God bless him and his Family)

 

In the tradition of the Prophet (God bless him and his family), very much like that of the Quran, the selection and installation of the vicegerent and the leader is attributed to the Glorified God.

 

·        The selection and installation of the vicegerent is done only by God

A number of great Sunnite scholars including ibn Hosham, and ibn Kathir and ibn Habban have narrated the story that in the time when the Messenger of God was inviting different Arab tribes to Islam some of the elders of these tribes such as bani Amer ibn Sa 'asa 'ah said to the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) that: "if we help you and you gain victory, will you leave the leadership after yourself to us?":

أيكون لنا الأمر من بعدك؟.

"Will you grant us government after you are gone?"

The Messenger of God answered: "the choice as to the selection and installation of the leader after me is not mine; rather, the choice in this regard is God 's and he shall choose for this station whomever he wills". Here we will present some of the sentences that the Messenger of God had said in this regard:

 

 

1.     الأمر إلى الله يضعه حيث يشاء

 

عن الزهري أنه أتى بني عامر بن صعصعة فدعاهم إلى الله عز وجل وعرض عليهم نفسه فقال رجل منهم يقال له بيحرة بن فراس قال ابن هشام فراس بن عبدالله بن سلمة الخير بن قشير بن كعب ابن ربيعة بن عامر بن صعصعة:

والله لو أني أخذت هذا الفتى من قريش لأكلت به العرب ثم قال أرأيت إن نحن بايعناك على أمرك ثم أظهرك الله على من خالفك أيكون لنا الأمر من بعدك. قال: الأمر إلى الله يضعه حيث يشاء.

"Zahri has narrated that the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) came to the Bani-Amer ibn Sa 'asa 'ah tribe and invited them to convert to Islam. A man from that tribe who was called "Beyharah ibn Farass" … said: "if we pledged allegiance to you and God gave you victory over your enemies, will you grant us the government after you?". The Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) said: "this is a matter decided only by God and no one else and he shall place it wherever he wills[6]"[7]"[8].[9][10][11][12][13][14]

الملك لله يجعله حيث يشاء2.        
Some of the Sunnite scholars have also transmitted the same narration from ibn Abbass:

 

عن ابن عباس، عن العباس قال: قال لى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: «لا أرى لى عندك ولا عند أخيك منعة، فهل أنت مخرجى إلى السوق غدا حتى نقر في منازل قبائل الناس» وكانت مجمع العرب. قال: فقلت: هذه كندة ولفها، وهى أفضل من يحج البيت من اليمن، وهذه منازل بكر بن وائل، وهذه منازل بنى عامر بن صعصعة، فاختر لنفسك. قال: فبدأ بكندة فأتاهم فقال: ممن القوم ؟ قالوا: من أهل اليمن.قال: من أي اليمن ؟ قالوا: من كندة قال: من أي كندة ؟ قالوا: من بنى عمرو بن معاوية.

قال: فهل لكم إلى خير ؟ قالوا: وما هو ؟ قال: " تشهدون أن لا إله إلا الله وتقيمون الصلاة وتؤمنون بما جاء من عند الله ".

قال عبدالله بن الاجلح: وحدثني أبى عن أشياخ قومه، أن كندة قالت له: إن ظفرت تجعل لنا الملك من بعدك ؟ فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: « إن الملك لله يجعله حيث يشاء». فقالوا: لا حاجة لنا فيما جئتنا به.

"Ibn Abbass has narrated from his father that: "the Messenger of God (God bless him and his famil) said: "will you come with me tomorrow to go to the bazaar so as to be in a place where the Arab people from different tribes convene there?" Abbass said: "I said to the Messenger of God that the tribes of Kendeh, Bakr ibn Wael and Bani Amer ibn Sa 'asa 'ah have houses there. Choose from among them anyone you will [to go to them]." Abbass said: "the Messenger of God stated with the tribe of Kendeh and went to them and asked:"who are these people?" I said: "these are from Yemen" he said: "from which family?" they said: "from the family of Bani Amr ibn Muawiyah". He said: "do you want all the good there is to be given to you?" they asked: "and what is that?" he said: "stand witness that there is no God but Allah (the one and the only God) and establish prayer and believe in what has been sent down by God." Abdullah ibn Ajlah said: "my father narrated from the elders of the Kendeh tribe that they said to the Messenger of God: "will you make us leader and ruler if you gain victory?" and the Prophet (God bless him and his family)" said: "the authority is all God 's and he will place it wherever he wills"""[15]"[16].

         

إنما ذلك إلى الله عز وجل يجعله حيث يشاء3.               

  A number of other Sunnite scholars have also transmitted a simmilar story about Amer ibn Tofeyl and Arbad ibn Rabi 'eh who had similar requests and the Messenger of God had also responded to them in the same way:

عن ابن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال أقبل عامر بن الطفيل وأربد بن ربيعة وهما عامريان يريدان رسول الله وهو جالس في المسجد في نفر من أصحابه فدخلا المسجد فاستشرف الناس لجمال عامر وكان أعور وكان من أجل الناس فقال رجل يا رسول الله هذا عامر بن الطفيل قد أقبل نحوك فقال: دعه فإن يرد الله به خيرا بهذه فأقبل حتى قام عليه فقال يا محمد مالي إن أسلمت قال لك ما للمسلمين وعليك ما على المسلمين قال تجعل لي الأمر بعدك قال ليس ذلك إلي إنما ذلك إلى الله عز وجل يجعله حيث يشاء.

"It has been narrated from ibn Abbass who said: "Amer ibn Tofeyl and Arbad ibn Rabi 'eh who were both from the Bani Amer tribe approached the Messenger of God who was sitting in the Mosque. Then, a man said: "O ' Messenger of God! Amer ibn Tofeyl is coming to you." The Messenger of God said: "let him come, for, if God intends to do us good, it will be by his coming here." So Amer ibn Tofeyl came close so that he was face to face with the Messenger of God and then said: "O ' Muhammad! What will I have if I convert to Islam?" the Prophet of Islam said: "you will receive the same benefits and harms as other Muslims do." Amer said: "grant me leadership after yourself" and the Prophet answered: "this is not my decision to make and it is only God 's and he shall place it wherever he wills[17]"[18]"[19]"[20][21][22][23][24][25]

 

Examining the jurisdiction of the Imam

One of the grave mistakes made by some of the scholars is that they have deemed Imamat to be synonymous with ruling and government, while government is one of the areas in which the Imam has jurisdiction. But Imamat has jurisdiction in other areas some of which are as follows:

 

1.    Mediation of the emanation (of God) to all the existence

·        Proving the mediation of emanation through Quranic evidence

There is no doubt that Prophets and other righteous men are mediums of divine emanation and that God has appointed his Prophets as Mediums of emanation to all the existence. This fact has been well-established in the Quran where the story of Prophet Suleiman is being recounted:

هذا عطاؤنا فامنن أو أمسك بغير حساب. ص / 39.

"Such are Our Bounties: whether thou bestow them (on others) or withhold them, no account will be asked."

 

This story is about Prophet Suleiman who was bestowed, by God, free dominion over a kingdom and was made the medium of emanation there, thus the Prophet of God had jurisdiction there to give or not give anything to anyone we wished, without being question about his decisions.

The holy Quran also says about the Prophet of Islam (God bless him and his family) that:

وَمَا نَقَمُوا إِلَّا أَنْ أَغْنَاهُمْ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُه مِن فَضْلِه‏. توبه / 74.

"And they meditated a plot which they were unable to carry out: this revenge of theirs was (their) only return for the bounty with which Allah and His Messenger had enriched them!"

 

In this holy verse, the Prophet (God bless him and his family) has been called the medium in providing the people with what they needed, right after calling God the one who had provided people with what they needed. This means that the act of providing people with what they needed by the Prophet (God bless him and his family) is in line with that of God and this is exactly what 's called being a medium of emanation which is one of the characteristics of all Prophets like Suleiman and the Prophet of Islam. After the Prophet (God bless him and his family) only the infallible Imams possess such a jurisdiction and who can be mediums of emanation for all the existence. This is because after the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family), the adherence to the Family of the Prophet is the same as the adherence to the Quran which is the only way of saving oneself from the wrong path. We have to admit that after the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family), his Family and the Quran are the mediums of emanation, otherwise we have to conclude that after the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) no one has mediated the emanation of God, which is a false statement, or we can claim others, who are not in the same rank as the Quran, as being the mediums of emanation, Which is quite unacceptable, since God would never make someone else the medium of emanation so long as the Family of his Prophet exists!

God says in, yet, another verse that:

وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ رَضُواْ مَا ءَاتَئهُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَقَالُواْ حَسْبُنَا اللَّهُ سَيُؤْتِينَا اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَرَسُولُهُ إِنَّا إِلىَ اللَّهِ رَاغِبُون‏. توبه/ 59.

"If only they had been content with what Allah and His Messenger gave them, and had said, "Sufficient unto us is Allah! Allah and His Messenger will soon give us of His bounty: to Allah do we turn our hopes!" (that would have been the right course)."  

 

In this verse the word "bestow" has been attributed both to God and his Messenger.

 

·        Proving the mediation of emanation through narrations

In the Sunnites ' references there are a number of narrations which confirm that God saves people on the earth from calamities because of the existence of the Prophets and other righteous men. These people are, in effect, mediums of God 's emanation which, because of the calamities are prevented and bounties are bestowed to mankind. Thus, even the Sunnite scholars have no doubt in the basic belief that the Prophets and righteous men are the mediums of God 's emanation; but they only consider the living Prophets and righteous men as mediums of emanation. However, we, the Shi 'ites, consider the infallible Imams, at any time, as the Mediums of emanation. Here we will consider a number of narrations which have been transmitted in this regard:

1.     Ibn Hojr has written in his book "Fath Al-Bari" that a few of the Prophets are still alive and are the protections of those living on earth (against calamities):

وروى عن مكحول عن كعب الأحبار قال أربعة من الأنبياء أحياء أمان لأهل الأرض اثنان في الأرض الخضر والياس واثنبن في السماء إدريس وعيسى.

"It has been narrated by Mak 'hool that Ka 'ab Al-Ahbaar had said: "four of God 's Prophets are still alive and are the protections of those who live on earth (against calamities). Two of them are on the earth, who are Khezr and Elias and two of them are in the heaven who are Edris and Jesus.[26]""

 

2.     Eyni has also written in the book "Omdah Al-Ghaary" that:

وعن شهر بن حوشب : لا تخلو الأرض إلاَّ وفيها أربعة عشر يدفع الله بهم عن أهل الأرض ويخرج بركتها إلاَّ زمان إبراهيم عليه الصلاة والسلام ، فإنه كان وحده.

"It has been narrated from Shahr ibn Hawshab that: "the earth is not made empty of fourteen people because of whom God prevents calamities from happening to those who live on the earth and he sends his bounties down to the earth, except for the time of Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him) for he was alone in his time."[27]"

 

3.     The same narration has alos been transmitted by Fakhr Razi in his commentary[28].

 

4.     Tabari has also transmitted this narration, with its chain, in his commentary[29].

 

5.     Qartabi has also narrated another narration in his commentary from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in which he has called 40 people "The Righteous" because of whom it rains and people are granted victory over their enemies and calamities are prevented from happening to them:

وروي عن علي رضي الله عنه قال : سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : ) إن الأبدال يكونون بالشام وهم أربعون رجلا كلما مات منهم رجل أبدل الله مكانه رجلا يسقي بهم الغيث وينصر بهم على الأعداء ويصرف بهم عن أهل الأرض البلاء ) ذكره الترمذي الحكيم في نوادر الأصول.

 "It is narrated from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) that: "I heard the Messenger of God say that "The Righteous" are in Shaam (Syria) and they are 40 people; and whne one of them dies, God appoints another in his stead and (it is because of these forty people that) God sends down rain and grants them victory over their enemies and prevents calamities from happening to them""[30]

 

6.     Tabarani has also transmitted a narration in his book "Mo 'jam Al-Awsat" in which Anas has called 40 people "The Righteous":

حدثنا علي بن سعيد قال نا إسحاق بن زريق الراسبي قال نا عبد الوهاب بن عطاء عن سعيد بن أبي عروبة عن قتادة عن انس قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لن تخلو الأرض من اربعين رجلا مثل إبراهيم خليل الرحمن فبهم يسقون وبهم ينصرون ما مات منهم أحد الا ابدل الله مكانه اخر قال وسمعت قتادة يقول لسنا نشك ان الحسن منهم .

"Saeed ibn Abi Arubah has transmitted a narration from Qatadah and he from Anas who had said: "the Messenegr of God (God bless him and his family) said: "The earth is never left void of forty men, just like Prophet Ibrahim (peace be upon him), because of whom God sends rain to those who dwell the earth and they are assisted by them and they do not die unless another is appointed in their stead." Saeed said that we do not doubt that Hassan is one of them""[31].

 

Examining the chain of this narration:

Heythami has commented in the book "Majma 'a Al-Zawaaed" that:

رواه الطبراني في الأوسط وإسناده حسن.

"This narration has been transmitted by Tabarani in his book "Mo 'jam Al-Awsat" and its chain is reliable"[32]

 

The fact of the matter that the Prophet (God bless him and his family) called his Family the protection of the people after him is sound clear evidence that they are the medium of emanation. Below we will consider a few instances of such narrations.

 

Abu Yoosof Fasawi, the prominent Sunnite historian, writes in his book "Al-Ma 'refah Wal-Taarikh" that:

حدثنا عبيد الله قال: حدثنا موسى بن عبيدة عن اياس بن سلمة بن الأكوع عن أبيه قال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: النجوم أمان لأهل السماء وأهل بيتي أمان لأمتي.

"The Messenger of God (God bless him and his Family) said: "the stars are the protection of those who dwell the heavens and my Family is the protection of my people"[33]"

 

Abu Abdullah Termidhi also writes in his book "Nawader Al-Osul" that:

في أن النجوم أمان لأهل السماء . والعلماء الصديقين أهل بيت النبوة أمان للأمة .

عن سلمة بن الأكوع رضي الله عنه قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم (النجوم أمان لأهل السماء وأهل بيتي أمان لأمتي).

"There is a narration, about this saying that the stars are the protection of the dwellers of the heavens and righteous scholars such as the members of the Family of the Prophet are the protection of the people, by Salamah ibn Al-Akwa 'a who had said: "the Messenger of God said: "the stars are the protection of those who dwell the heavens and my Family members are the protection of my people""[34]"

 

The same narration has also been transmitted by Ibn Hojr Asqalani in his book "Al-Mataleb Al-Aaliyeh"[35].

 

Hakem Neyshaburi has also transmitted another narration from the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) in which he had said:

النجوم أمان لأهل السماء فإذا طمست النجوم، أتى السماء ما يوعدون ، وأنا أمان لأصحابي فإذا قُبضت، أتى أصحابي ما يوعدون ، وأهل بيتى أمان لأمّتي فإذا ذهب أهل بيتي أتى أمتي ما يوعدون.

"the stars are the protection of those who dwell the heavens, so, when the stars are annihilated then what has been prophesized will have happened; and I am the protection of my companions, so once I pass away, what has been prophesized about them will happen; and my Family members are the protection of my people, so when they are gone then what has been prophesized about my people will happen"[36].

 

And he said in, yet, another narration that:

النجوم أمان لأهل السماء ، فإذا ذهبت النجوم ذهب أهل السماء ، وأهل بيتي أمان لأهل الأرض ، فإذا ذهب أهل بيتي ذهب أهل الأرض.

"Stars are the protection of the dwellers of the heavens, so when stars are annihilated the dwellers of the heavens will too; and my Family members are the protection of the people on earth, so when my Family members are gone, those who dwell the earth will also be annihilated.[37]"[38]

 

And in another version of this narration it has been said:

النجوم أمان لأهل السماء وأهل بيتي أمان لأمتي.

"The stars in the sky are the protection of those who dwell the heavens and my Family members are the protection of my people."

Based on these narrations we can conclude that the Family of the Prophet are definitely the medium of emanation, since they are the protection of the people on earth; we can also conclude from these narrations that the issue of mediation of emanation by people such as the members of the Family of the Prophet is a proven fact among Muslims.

 

2.    Guiding the people

In the time of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) the burden of guiding people lay on the shoulders of the Prophet himself; after the Prophet passed away, however, the task of guiding people must rest with those who have been called the guides of the people by the Prophet.

In numerous references the following verse has been interpreted as follows:

«إنّما أنت منذر ولكلّ قوم هاد» الرعد/ 7

"But thou art truly a warner, and to every people a guide."

 

"When this verse was revealed the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) put his hands on his chest and said:

«أنا المنذر وأومأ بيده إلي منكب علي رضي اللّه عنه فقال: أنت الهادي يا علي بك يهتدي المهتدون من بعدي».

"I am the warner" and he pointed to the shoulders of Ali (peace be upon him) and said: "and you are the guide, with whom those who must be guided will be guided[39]"[40]"[41][42][43][44]

 

Based on this narration, it is safe to conclude that the guidance of people after the Messenger of God has been left to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and it has been his responsibility to guide people. A further proof for this conclusion is the numerous narrations transmitted in the Sunnites ' references in which the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) had introduced Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as follows:

«عن حذيفة قال : قالوا : يا رسول اللّه ألا تستخلف عليا ؟ قال : «إن تولّوا عليّاً تجدوه هادياً مهديّاً يسلك بكم الطريق المستقيم».

"It has been narrated from Hadhifeh who said: "people asked: O ' Messenger of God! Won 't you install someone as your vicegerent?" he said: "If you appoint Ali (peace be upon him) as guardian and leader, you will find him a guided and a guide who will lead you to the righteous path"[45]"[46]

 

Ganji Shafeii has commented on this narration, in his book "Kefayah Al-Taaleb" as follows:

هذا حديث حسن عال.

"This narration is reliable and has a perfect chain"[47]

 

And it has been narrated in Hakem Neyshabury 's "Mustadrak" that:

وان وليتموها عليا فهاد مهتد يقيمكم على صراط مستقيم. هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم‏يخرجاه.

"If you accept his (Ali 's) vicarage and the guardianship, you will realize that he is the guide and the guided one who will lead you to the righteous path"

This narration is, based on the conditions of Bukhari and Muslem, is reliable; however, they have not transmitted it in their books.[48]

 

3.    Scientific Authority

During the lifetime of the Prophet (God bless him and his family) he was the sole scientific authority of the Muslim people who explained the religious regulations to them, sometimes through reciting them the verses of the revealed prescripts and sometimes through his own tradition, and so he executed his duty in this regard.

The Glorified God says in this regard:

لقَدْ مَنَّ اللَّهُ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ بَعَثَ فِيهِمْ رَسُولاً مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ يَتْلُوا عَلَيْهِمْ آياتِهِ وَ يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَ يُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتابَ وَ الْحِكْمَةَ وَ إِنْ كانُوا مِنْ قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلالٍ مُبِينٍ. آل عمران /164.

"Allah did confer a great favor on the believers when He sent among them a messenger from among themselves, rehearsing unto them the Signs of Allah, sanctifying them, and instructing them in Scripture and Wisdom, while, before that, they had been in manifest error."

 

And he further says in another verse that:

وَ أَنْزَلْنا إِلَيْكَ الذِّكْرَ لِتُبَيِّنَ لِلنَّاسِ ما نُزِّلَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ. النحل/44.

"(We sent them) with Clear Signs and Books of dark prophecies; and We have sent down unto thee (also) the Message; that thou mayest explain clearly to men what is sent for them, and that they may give thought."

 
After the Prophet (God bless him and his family), because of the new happenings, Muslim people will be in dire need of new laws and regulations which have not been needed in the time of the Prophet and so a scientific authority, just like the Prophet, would be vital to provide the Muslim community with new rules and regulations based on the rich tradition of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family).
 

·        The Scientific Authority of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in the words of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)

In numerous narrations from the great Prophet of Islam (God bless him and his family) such a scientific authority has been introduced to the people and in which all the Muslim people were advised to refer to him in any scientific conflict. We will mention three of such narrations here:

 

a.     The Narration of Thaqalayn

In this narration, the great Prophet of Islam (God bless him and his family) has introduced his Family members as the scientific authority to his people and has placed them at the same rank as the Quran and said: "these two will never separate and the Muslim people will never go astray if they adhere to these two precious things".

There is a consensus among all the Muslim people about the validity of the narration of Thaqalayn and a large number of Shi 'ite and Sunnite scholars have also confirmed its validity. Ibn Kathir, for instance, writes in his commentary:

وقد ثبت في الصحيح أنّ رسول اللّه صلى الله عليه وسلم قال في خطبته بغدير خم «إنّي تارك فيكم الثقلين كتاب اللّه وعترتى وإنّهما لم يفترقا حتّى يردا عليّ الحوض».

"in the book Sahih [Muslem] it has been proved that the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) had said in his speech in Qadir Khom that: "I am leaving two invaluable items among you: the Book of God and my Family. These two will not separate until they come to me near the Pond [of Kawthar]."[49]"

 

And he further writes in two of his other books that:

قال شيخنا أبو عبد اللّه الذهبي: و هذا حديث صحيح.

"Our master, Abu-Abdullah Dhahabi, had said that "this narration is valid".[50]"[51]

 

Sheikh Naseraddin Albani Wahhabi has also confirmed the validity of this narration[52].

 

Heythamy has also said:

رواه الطبراني في الكبير ورجاله ثقات.

"Tabarani has transmitted this narration in the book "Mo 'ejam Al-Kabir" and the narrators of this narration are all reliable"[53].

-         The indication of the Narration of Thaqalayn as to the scientific authority of the Family of the Prophet (God bless them all)

The indication of this narration as to the scientific authority of the Family of the Prophet is quite clear; this is because the adherence to the Family of the Prophet has been considered to be equal to the adherence to the Book of God, and since the Quran is the major scientific authority for guiding people away from the wrong path, adhering to the Family of the Prophet (God bless him and his Family) will also lead to their guiding away from the wrong path. Further, it is also clear that adhering to the Family of the Prophet (God bless him and his family) and obeying and following them is only possible through believing in their Imamat and Leadership and to follow them as the Leaders of the Muslims.

A number of Sunnite scholars also, based on the fact that the adherence to the Family of the Prophet has been placed in the same rank as the adherence to the Quran in this narration, have interpreted the adherence to the Family of the Prophet as obeying their every order, which are based on knowledge and guidance, and which can only be accomplished through believing in their Imamat and their scientific authority.

We will here consider a few of their views as examples.

1.     Taftazani writes in "Sharh Al-Maqased" that:

ألا يرى أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم قرنهم بكتاب الله في كون التمسك بهما منقذا من الضلالة ولا معنى للتمسك بالكتاب إلا الأخذ بما فيه من العلم والهداية فكذا في العترة.

"don 't you see that the Prophet (God bless him and his family) has place his Family at the same rank with the Quran, in adherence to them, and there is no meaning in the word "adherence" to the book of God other than obeying its every order which is of knowledge and guidance; therefore, the same thing is true about the Family of the Prophet."[54]

 

2.     Mulla Ali Qari has narrated from "Ibn Al-Malek" in the book "Merqaat Al-Mafatih Sharh Meshkaat Al-Masaabih" that:

وقال ابن الملك : التمسك بالكتاب العمل بما فيه ، وهوالائتمار بأوامر الله والانتهاء بنواهيه . ومعنى التمسك بالعترة محبتهم والاهتداء بهديهم وسيرتهم.

"ibn Malek had said: "the adherence to the Book of God is to obey whatever there is in it to follow God 's orders and to keep away from the things it had prohibited; thus the meaning of the adherence to the Family of the Prophet (God bless him and his family) is to love them and to be guided by their guidance and their way of conduct and their tradition."[55]"

 

3.     Manawi has also said:

زاد في رواية (كهاتين) وأشار بأصبعيه وفي هذا مع قوله أولا إني تارك فيكم تلويح بل تصريح بأنهما كتوأمين خلفهما ووصى أمته بحسن معاملتهما وإيثار حقهما على أنفسهم واستمساك بهما في الدين.

"there is another narration form the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) in which he had said: "these two [the Quran and the Family of the Prophet] are similar to these (and then he pointed to his two fingers), meaning that they will never separate; and these words by the messenger of God along with the other narration in which he had said: "I am leaving two valuable items among you …" there is a clear reiteration that these two are twins which are his inheritance and he ordered his people to treat them in the best way and to place them prior to anything else and to adhere to them in religious matters."[56]"

 

d.    The Family of the Prophet are the authority for settling disputes

The Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) has, several times, called his Family, and above all of them, Ali ibn Abitaaleb, as the major authority for settling the disputes among his people.

Hakem Neyshabury has transmitted one of such narrations in his book "Mustadrak" and has reiterated that, based on the conditions of Bukhari and Muslem, it is a valid narration:

(حدثنا) عبدان بن يزيد بن يعقوب الدقاق من أصل كتابه ثنا إبراهيم بن الحسين بن ديزيل ثنا أبو نعيم ضرار بن صرد ثنا معتمر بن سليمان قال سمعت أبي يذكر عن الحسن عن انس بن مالك رضي الله عنه ان النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال: أنت تبين لامتي ما اختلفوا فيه بعدي.

هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه.»

"Anas ibn Malek has narrated that the Messengero of God (God bless him and his family) said to Ali (peace be upon him): "you will explain to my people the things they have conflicts in""[57]

Others have also transmitted this narration[58]:[59] [60] [61] [62]

He further narrates another narration in this regard which is as follows:

حدثنا مكرم بن أحمد القاضي ثنا أحمد بن علي الأبار ثنا إسحاق بن سعيد بن أركون الدمشقي ثنا خليد بن دعلج أبو عمرو السدوسي أظنه عن قتادة عن عطاء عن بن عباس رضي الله عنهما قال قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم النجوم أمان لأهل الأرض من الغرق وأهل بيتي أمان لأمتي من الاختلاف فإذا خالفتها قبيلة من العرب اختلفوا فصاروا حزب إبليس هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه[63]

 

It is quite clear that in simple conflicts among Muslim people such as financial conflicts, there are a lot of people who can be the authority in settling them; however, not all people have the qualifications to be the authority of settling scientific conflicts in the Muslim community. That is to say, not all the people can settle scientific conflicts among the Muslim scholars; rather, it must be a person who has a vast knowledge bestowed to him by God and through his Prophet (God bless him and his family) and all of us know that such people were the members of the Family of Prophet, i.e Imam Ali and other infallible Imams (peace be upon them) who were the most knowledgeable people of their time and who were introduced as the twins of the Quran in knowledge. As the companions admitted, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was the "Gate of the city of Knowledge" as the most knowledgeable person of his time. This issue has been admitted by Ayesheh and Ibn Abbass, which we will consider their remarks in the next section on the scientific authority of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) from the viewpoint of the companions and second generation Muslims.

 

e.      Imam Ali (peace be upon him) the gate to the city of knowledge (i.e. the Messenger of God)

Ibn Abbass says that the Messenger of God (peace be upon him) said: "I am the city of knowledge and Ali is its gate. Whoever seeks knowledge must enter from its gate[64]"[65].[66]

 

Hakem Neyshaburi has also transmitted this narration through A 'amash and has called it valid and said: "The chains of this narration are all valid but Bukhari and Muslm have not transmitted it"[67].

 

Moreover, Hakem Neyshaburi has also transmitted this narration through ibn Abbass and with another chain and then said: "There is evidence in the narration of Sufyan Thuri with a valid chain which supports this narration"[68]

Ibn Hojr Asqalani has also said:

"In the book Mustadrak, by Hakem, a lot of chains have been mentioned for this narration and the least they prove is the validity of this narration. So we have to admit that it is not fabricated"[69].

 

Analysis and Discussion

What it means here by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) being the gate to the city of knowledge is that whoever wants to acquire knowledge from its source, he has to enter from the gate and this means that the Prophet wanted to introduce Imam Ali (peace be upon him) the sole source of science in the Muslim community (after the Prophet). this is because, based on this narration, anyone who wants to have access to the knowledge of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family), he has to refer to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and then after him to the other infallible Imams who had taken their knowledge from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and so they are the intermediaries between us and the gate to the city of knowledge.

 

The scientific authority of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) as stated by the Companions and second generation Muslims

A number of companions have also called Imam Ali (peace be upon him) the most knowledgeable of all and this indicates to the fact that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) had been the scientific authority of that time; this is because the wise always praise admire those ordinary people who refer to the wisest of the people when the need arises. Below are the comments of some of the companions in this regard:

 

1.     Ayesheh: Ali is the most knowledgeable of all in matters of Tradition

In his chronicle, Bukhari narrates the following narration from Ayesheh:

"Ali is the most knowledgeable of all in matters of the Prophet 's Tradition[70]"[71]

So a person who is the most knowledgeable of all the people about the Tradition of the Prophet is most definitely the scientific authority of the Muslim community.

2.     Ibn Abbass: Ali has all the knowledge!

The great Sunnite scholars have narrated te following comment from ibn Abbass:

لقد أعطي علي تسعة أعشار العلم وأيم الله لقد شاركهم في العشر العاشر.

"Ali has been given nine tenth of all the knowledge and by God he has shared with people but one tenth of one of those nine parts[72]![73]"[74] [75] [76] [77] [78] [79]

When a figure like Ibn Abbass says that nine tenth of all knowledge has been given to Imam Ali and he shares only one tenth of it with other people then it would be easy to conclude that he had indeed been the scientific authority.

Moreover, in another narration ibn Abbass makes the following comments:

إذا ثبت لنا الشئ عن علي لم نعدل عنه إلى غيره.

"When something was proved for us by Ali (peace be upon him) then we never refer to others for it"[80].[81] [82]

 

When ibn Abbass did not refer to others when he learned something from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) then it is completely clear that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) had been considered the scientific authority by the companions.

Ibn Abbass, who is considered to be a prominent Quranic commentator among the companions, says:

فأما صدر المفسرين والمؤيد فيهم فعلي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه ويتلوه عبدالله بن عباس وهو تجرد للأمر وكمله وتبعه العلماء عليه كمجاهد وسعيد بن جبير وغيرهما والمحفوظ عنه في ذلك أكثر من المحفوظ عن علي وقال ابن عباس : ما أخذت من تفسير القرآن فعن علي بن أبي طالب

"The greatest Quranic commentator of all whose commentary is validated by God is Ali ibn Abitaaleb and after him the greatest commentator is Abdullah ibn Abbass whose sole specialty was commentary and he had completed his skills in this regard and great scholars, such as Mujahed and Saied ibn Jobayr,  followed him and transmitted narrations through him about commentary but the narrations that we have from Ali are more. However, ibn Abbass has said: "Whatever I learnt about Quranic commentary I got from Ali ibn Abitaaleb!!""[83]

 

3.     Saied ibn Musayyeb (one of the Prophet 's companions): no one except Ali ever said "Ask me"!

Saied ibn Musayyeb said: "None of the companions ever said "Ask me" except for Ali"[84][85][86] [87][88][89][90]

In some references the sentence by Saied ibn Musayyeb has been transmitted as follows: "No one ever said "Ask me" except for Ali"[91].

 

These remarks by Saied ibn Musayyeb are also further proof that none of the companions could be considered a scientific authority for the Muslim people after the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) except for Imam Ali (peace be upon him).

 

4.     Omar: "I seek refuge with God from the problem that Ali is not there to solve!"

A number of Sunnite scholars have transmitted the following comments from Omar:

كان عمر يتعوذّ باللّه من معضلة ليس فيها أبو حسن.

"Omar seeks refuge with God from the problem that Ali is not there to solve[92]![93]"[94] [95]

 

And also the following words are famous remarks made by Omar:

لولا علي لهلك عمر.

"If Ali had not there (to help), Omar would have perished[96]"[97][98][99][100]

Although the Sunnites consider Omar as a knowledgeable person regarding the tradition of the Messenger of God but it is clear from these comments that he had been in dire need of help from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in solving most of his problems. This was the knowledge that the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) had taught Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and no other.

It is crystal clear that the scientific authority of the Muslim people must be a person who never needs others in solving problems; rather he must be the one to whom others refer when they cannot solve a problem themselves.

 

5.     The great companions referred to Imam Ali (peace be upon him)

In his book "Tahdhib Al-Asmaa" Muhiyedin Nawawi writes:

وسؤال كبار الصحابة ورجوعهم إلى فتاويه وأقواله في المواطن الكثيرة والمسائل المعضلات، مشهور.

"It is well-known that the great companions referred to Ali (peace be upon him) and his opinions in their problems"[101]

 

 

4.     Protecting the religion

All the religions of the past were distorted after their Prophets passed away; but the religion of the Prophet of Islam (God bless him and his family), which is an eternal religion, should have been protected against all distortions. During the last years of his life, the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) was worried about any kind of distortion in his religion and used to say:

من كذب عليّ متعمداً فليتبوأ مقعده من النار.   

"Whoever tells lies and attributes them to me intentionally then his place will be the Fire".

This narration has been transmitted by ibn Hanbal and Dhahabi[102]:[103]

This is why the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) made all his efforts during his lifetime to protect the religion and also this is why after he passed away there should have been other infallible persons like the great Prophet of Islam to protect the religion from the distortions of others; if these persons had not been infallible then there would have been no reason for the Muslim people to trust their ideas and opinions, since they would have been considered as an ordinary person like the other Muslims! This is because an ordinary person who is not infallible is subject to mistake and errors and also it is clear that the companions were not infallible and they had not been chosen by God for the guidance of people and the Prophet (God bless him and his family) had never said:

اني تارك فيكم الثقلين كتاب الله وأصحابي.

But the great Prophet of Islam (God bless him and his family) appointed the members of his Family as those who had the task of guiding his people and protecting his religion:

Ibn Hojr Heythami, in his book "Al-Sawaaeq Al-Muhreqah", Muhebbedin Tabari, in his book "Dhakhaaer Al-Oqbaa", and Ghandoozi Hanafi in his book "Yanabii Al-Mawedah" have all transmitted the following narration from Omar:

إن النبي صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال : «في كلّ خلف من أمتي عدول من أهل بيتي ، يَنفُون عن هذا الدين تحريف الغالين ، وانتحال المبطلين ، وتأويل الجاهلين».

"The Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) said: in any generation of my people there are some members of my family who would neutralize and annul the distortions of the misguided and the lies of the wrongdoers and the interpretations of the uninformed people about the religion[104]"[105]"[106]

 

In another instance, Abu-Ja 'afar Eskaafi has also transmitted a similar narration which is as follows:

وعنه يؤثر صلى الله عليه و سلم أنّه قال : «يحمل هذا العلم من كلّ خلف من أهل بيتي عدوله ، ينفون عنه تحريف الغالين ، وانتحال المبطلين، وتأويل الجاهلين.

"It has been narrated from the Messenger of God that: "Those bearing knowledge are some members of my family, in any generation of my people, who neutralize and annul the distortions of the misguided and the lies of the wrongdoers and the interpretations of the uninformed people about the religion"[107]"

 

5.     Spreading Justice

Establishing justice among the Muslim people after the Prophet of Islam, must be accomplished by rulers who place justice at the center of their programs and must never prefer a group of Muslims over others or Arabs over non-Arabs; they must not discriminate between the Muslim people and must not even prefer their brothers over other people in distributing the wealth of the Muslim society.

 

What is the role of people 's allegiance in an Islamic Government?

All of the above-mentioned qualities could only be found in Imam Ali (peace be upon him) during the vicarage of the three vicegerents. However, spreading justice through the establishment of a government is done on the condition that the grounds are set and the people feel the necessity for it, and this happened after Othman 's death. This is because establishing justice cannot be accomplished merely because the Imam is appointed by God and there is very clear text from the Prophet (God bless him and his family) about him; God also says in this regard:

إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يُغَيِّرُ ما بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّى يُغَيِّرُوا ما بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ . الرعد/11

"Allah does not change a people´s lot unless they change what is in their hearts."   

Indeed an Islamic ruler who is appointed by God can only establish his government in a society who have grasped the essence of such government and would welcome it and also on the condition that the grounds are set for it. A good example in this regard is the time when the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) was living in Mecca, after he was given his Divine Mission by God, when he did not try to establish an Islamic government there; however, as soon as he moved to Medina, and after the grounds were set for the establishment of justice, and the people were ready for it, he established the first Islamic government in Medina. Therefore, an Imam who is appointed by God, is the Imam, whether people want or not, and whether the grounds are set for him to establish the Islamic government or not.

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) clearly states in Nahj-Albalaaqeh that he has been the only person worthy of Imamat and no one else. For instance he makes the following remarks in the second sermon in Nahj-Albalaaqeh:

لَا يُقَاسُ بِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ (صلى‏الله‏عليه و اله) مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ أَحَدٌ وَ لَا يُسَوَّى بِهِمْ مَنْ جَرَتْ نِعْمَتُهُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَبَداً هُمْ أَسَاسُ الدِّينِ وَ عِمَادُ الْيَقِينِ إِلَيْهِمْ يَفِي‏ءُ الْغَالِي وَ بِهِمْ يُلحَق التَّالِي وَ لَهُمْ خَصَائِصُ حَقِّ الْوِلَايَةِ وَ فِيهِمُ الْوَصِيَّةُ وَ الْوِرَاثَةُ.

الْآنَ إِذْ رَجَعَ الْحَقُّ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ وَ نُقِلَ إِلَى مُنْتَقَلِهِ.

"No one of the Muslim people can be compared to the Members of the Family of the Prophet and those who learn from the Members of the Family of the Prophet cannot be placed equal to them. The Members of the Family of the Prophet are the foundations of the religion and the pillars of faith; those who exaggerate (about things) have to come back to them (and their verdict) and those who have been left behind (in knowledge) must try to join them. The qualities of Guardianship and Islamic ruling exist only in them and the vicarage and the inheritance of the Prophet have, now, been returned to them after they have been taken from them"[108].

 

This sermon is so clear and direct in indicating to the rightfulness of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) with regard to Imamat and vicarage that even ibn Abel-Hadid Mu 'etazeli could not deny that and has only tried to justify his own idea by saying that the fact that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) had been the most qualified person for vicarage had not been because there has been a "very clear text" by Prophet about his vicarage; rather it is because he had been the most qualified in characteristics for this position. he writes in this regard:

ثم ذكر عليه السلام أن الحق رجع الآن إلى أهله ، وهذا يقتضي أن يكون فيما قبل في غير أهله ، ونحن نتأول ذلك على غير ما تذكره الإمامية ، ونقول : إنه عليه السلام كان أولى بالأمر وأحق ، لا على وجه النص ، بل على وجه الأفضلية ، فإنه أفضل البشر بعد رسول الله، وأحق بالخلافة من جميع المسلمين ، لكنه ترك حقه لما علمه من المصلحة ، وما تفرس فيه هو والمسلمون من اضطراب الإسلام ، وانتشار الكلمة ، لحسد العرب له ، وضغنهم عليه . وجائز لمن كان أولى بشيء فتركه ثم استرجعه أن يقول : قد رجع الأمر إلى أهله .

"Then Ali (peace be upon him) said: "Now those who were rightful have been given back their right". What is meant by these remarks is that [the vicarage] has been in the hands of those who had no right having it. We interpret these remarks differently from what the Shi 'ites interpret them. We believe that Ali (peace be upon him) had been the best one for the position of vicarage, not because there had been a clear text from the Prophet about his vicarage, but because he had been the most qualified person for this position, for, he has been the best of all men after the Prophet and so he has been the most qualified among the Muslims for vicarage. However, he himself did not assume what was rightfully his because of his good-will for the Muslims and the great understanding of his because he knew that if he became the vicegerent he might have evoked the enmity and the envy of Arabs against him which might have threatened the existence of Islam. Therefore, it is quite fitting for someone who has relinquished his right for some good intentions, to say that he has got his right back when he assumes it again."[109]

 

The study of the doubts cast on the 92nd sermon of Nahj Al-Balaaqeh

Some of the doubts cast on this sermon are as follows:

The first doubt: Imam Ali 's declining the vicarage in the beginning of the vicarage

The second doubt: the rejection of conditioned vicarage is not in contrast with the verse:

وَ ما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ُ مِن أَمْرِهِمْ . الاحزاب/36.

"It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision"

The third doubt: Did Imam Ali (peace be upon him) have any preconditions for accepting vicarage?

The fourth doubt: wasn 't declining the vicarage a kind of evading responsibility by Imam Ali (peace be upon him)?

 

The first doubt: Imam Ali 's declining the vicarage in the beginning of the vicarage

One of the major doubts cast on this sermon is that why didn 't Imam Ali (peace be upon him) accept vicarage at the beginning of his vicarage, although the Shi 'ites believe Imamat to be a station in which one is installed by God and rejecting it would be disobeying God 's orders.

 

Answer:

1.     The distortions made in the eras of the other vicegerents were the reason of declining vicarage.

These remarks by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) are in fact ironic and sarcastic remarks which address those who had given their allegiance to three other vicegerents before they come to him. In fact Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is telling them to go back to those before him, to whom they had given their allegiance before! It would have been very easy, if they had not given their allegiance to other people, to place the Islamic vicarage in its rightful place and to follow the religion as it was supposed to be followed. But they came to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) after derailing the vicarage from its right track.

If those who have cast this doubt had studied the distortions that were made in the time of the three vicegerents before Imam Ali (peace be upon him), they would never have even cast this doubt at all! Because they would have realized that the reason why Imam Ali (peace be upon him) first rejected the people 's request and vicarage was not because his Imamat had not been by God 's orders; rather, it had been because the conditions of het Muslim community had been greatly distorted in the time of the three vicegerents and it was not the way that it had been in the time of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) and so the potentials of the society to accept his method of government and his justice had been destroyed, as he explains this in a part of his speech:

فانا مستقبلون امراً له وجوه و ألوان. 

These remarks were made by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) when the Muslim community was inflicted with various alterations and transformations which were mostly done in the time of Othman 's vicarage and this made the Muslim people go through various ordeals. So Imam Ali (peace be upon him) says:

"We are facing now some issues which have various aspects and facades … you must know that if I accept your request I will treat you the way I know and in so doing I will be affected by no reproacher and will not listen to the words of this and that!"

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) knew very well that the Muslim people had been led astray from the real and true Islam in the time of the first three vicegerents. The arbitrary distribution of the positions in the Islamic government, the unjustly giving out of money from the Muslim 's treasury to certain people which has reached its peak in the time of the third vicegerent has changed the people 's appetite so that if any one were to do exactly as the tradition of the Prophet then he would have to prepare himself for severe objections and even defiance and what happened next (i.e. the wars that were forced upon the government of Imam Ali (peace be upon him)) are the proofs these remarks and they also prove that Imam Ali 's (peace be upon him) predictions were right. So when the people came to him to give him his allegiance he warned them and said:

"Leave me be, for, you do not have the strength to bear my justice!"

These remarks by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) are only clarified when we understand the situation in which these remarks have been made; it was the time after Othman was killed and the companions and second generation Muslims gathered to give their allegiance to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) just like they had given their allegiance to other vicegerents before. In such conditions, a vicegerent 's position is given to him through people 's allegiance and it is a separate issue from the issue of Imamat which is a Divine station and which has been proved for Imam Ali (peace be upon him) through different narrations by the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family). This is because those who had come to give their allegiance to Imam Ali (peace be upon him), only thought about choosing a vicegerent without any regard to the abundance of evidence as to Imam Ali 's Imamat which was given to him by God. Therefore, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was not rejecting his Divine Imamat when he first refused the request of the people.

The Muslim society after the three vicegerents was not prepared for a real Islamic government such as the one established by Imam Ali (peace be upon him). Their condition was similar to the condition of the people of Mecca who did not have the necessary conditions to allow the Prophet to establish an Islamic government there during his thirteen years living in Mecca before migrating to Medina.

Another point here worth noting is that the narrations, whether by the Prophet of Islam (God bless him and his family) or by his Family members, cane be of definite or indefinite nature. Therefore, if some of the indefinite narrations by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) support the claims of the person who has cast this doubt, and then if this doubt-caster finds such inconsistencies in the words of the other vicegerents or companions, whom he believes to be perfectly just, what will he do then? How will he then justify the opposition and defiance of the other companions against the grandest of the companions (i.e. Imam Ali (peace be upon him))?

In numerous instances in his speeches in Nahj Al-Balaaqeh, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) reiterates that Imamat has been rightfully his and no other 's. We have referred to some of such instances before, yet, will refer to another one below too.

 

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) makes the following remarks in the third sermon of Nahj Al-Balaaqeh:

أَمَا وَاللَّهِ لَقَدْ تَقَمَّصَهَا فُلَانٌ وَإِنَّهُ لَيَعْلَمُ أَنَّ مَحَلِّي مِنْهَا مَحَلُّ الْقُطْبِ مِنَ الرَّحَى يَنْحَدِرُ عَنِّي السَّيْلُ وَلَا يَرْقَى إِلَيَّ الطَّيْر...»

"Beware! That Abu-Bakr forced himself on the position of vicarage while he knew well that [it was rightfully mine and that] I in the position of vicarage and the ruler of the Islamic government was like the axis of the mill around which the mill circulates. He knew very well that my knowledge was vast and no man could ever imagine of ever having the virtues I had …"[110]

b.     The 144th cermon

اِنَّ الْأَئِمَّةَ مِنْ قُرَيْشٍ غُرِسُوا فِي هَذَا الْبَطْنِ مِنْ هَاشِم لَا تَصْلُحُ عَلَى سِوَا وَ لَا تَصْلُحُ الْوُلَاةُ مِنْ غَيْرِهِمْ.

"so verily all the Imams have been from Quraysh and inside Qurayesh from the Bani-Hashem family. The station of Imamat and guardianship is not fitting for anyone other than them and those who have assumed it so unrightfully are not worthy of it."[111]

c.      The 36th letter

...فدَعْ عَنْكَ قُرَيْشاً وَ تَرْكَاضَهُمْ فِي الضَّلَالِ وَ تَجْوَالَهُمْ فِي الشِّقَاقِ وَ جِمَاحَهُمْ فِي التِّيهِ فَإِنَّهُمْ قَدْ أَجْمَعُوا عَلَى حَرْبِي كَإِجْمَاعِهِمْ عَلَى حَرْبِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلى ‏الله‏ عليه ‏و آله‏) قَبْلِي فَجَزَتْ قُرَيْشاً عَنِّي الْجَوَازِي فَقَدْ قَطَعُوا رَحِمِي وَ سَلَبُونِي سُلْطَانَ ابْنِ أُمِّي...

"leave the Qurayesh to live in their ignorance and to wander in their wrong path and to live in enmity. Truly they have united to fight me just like the way they united to fight the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) before. May God punish them for their terrible crimes, for they did not honor my blood relation with them and took away the vicarage of the Prophet from me, which was rightfully mine"[112]

 

d.     Wisdom 22

وَ قَالَ ( عليه‏السلام) لَنَا حَقٌّ فَإِنْ أُعْطِينَاهُ وَ إِلَّا رَكِبْنَا أَعْجَازَ الْإِبِلِ وَ إِنْ طَالَ السُّرَى.

"Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said: "we have a right which if they give it to us, then we settle and if they deny us our right then we mount our camels and ride for taking it even if our riding is prolonged""[113]

 

62nd letter: which is Imam Ali 's letter to the people of Egypt which sent to them by Malek Ashtar (May he reside in God 's paradise) when he made him the governor of Egypt.

أَمَّا بَعْدُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ سُبْحَانَهُ بَعَثَ مُحَمَّداً (صلى‏الله‏عليه‏وآله‏وسلم ) نَذِيراً لِلْعَالَمِينَ وَ مُهَيْمِناً عَلَى الْمُرْسَلِينَ فَلَمَّا مَضَى (عليه‏السلام)تَنَازَعَ الْمُسْلِمُونَ الْأَمْرَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ فَوَاللَّهِ مَا كَانَ يُلْقَى فِي رُوعِي وَ لَا يَخْطُرُ بِبَالِي أَنَّ الْعَرَبَ تُزْعِجُ هَذَا الْأَمْرَ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ (صلى‏الله‏عليه‏وآله‏وسلم) عَنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَ لَا أَنَّهُمْ مُنَحُّوهُ عَنِّي مِنْ بَعْدِهِ فَمَا رَاعَنِي إِلَّا انْثِيَالُ النَّاسِ عَلَى فُلَانٍ يُبَايِعُونَهُ فَأَمْسَكْتُ يَدِي حَتَّى رَأَيْتُ رَاجِعَةَ النَّاسِ قَدْ رَجَعَتْ عَنِ الْإِسْلَامِ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى مَحْقِ دَيْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ( صلى‏الله‏عليه‏وآله‏)...

 

"So God Almighty sent Muhammad (God bless him and his family) to warn the people of the world and to corroborate the Prophets before him. However, when the Prophet (God bless him and his family) went back to God, Muslim people fought each other over his vicarage. I swear by God that I neither thought nor even imagined that the Arabs would take away the Messenger of God 's vicarage from his family or to deny me the vicarage after him. The only thing that worried me was that people went to the first vicegerent and gave their allegiance to him. So I gave up until I saw a group of people who abandoned Islam and want to eliminate the religion of Muhammad (God bless him and his family) …"[114]

 

Ibn Abel-Hadid also reiterates here, while interpreting these words here, that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) denied giving his allegiance to Abu-Bakr and explains:

قوله : فأمسكت يدي ، أي امتنعت عن بيعته ، حتى رأيت راجعة الناس.

"These words by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) that "I gave up" means that he denied giving Abu-Bakr his allegiance until he saw that a group of people were abandoning Islam"[115]

 

He has also referred to these remarks by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in his interpretations of the 172nd and 217th sermons in Nahj Al-Balaaqeh.[116]

Ibn Ghatibeh Dinwari has also referred to these remarks and has interpreted them in the same way.[117]

 

The other point here is that in an abundant number of narrations there are a large number of completely clear texts from the Prophet along with corroboration of the historical event which indicate to the Imamat of Imam Ali (peace be upon him). If a person finds any contradictions in these narrations, then those narrations that are well-known are accepted and those which contradict them are interpreted based on the well-known narrations.

Therefore, if Imam Ali (peace be upon him) did not accept people 's allegiance at first and told them to look for another person to make him their vicegerent was not because there has been no absolutely clear text about his Imamat; rather, he wanted to show the people his objection to the wrong ways of the vicegerents before him and warn them about the vicissitudes ahead.

Indeed the people 's allegiance had wiped away the barriers of establishing the Islamic government and had paved the way for it; however, people 's allegiance is not considered to something that gives legitimacy to the Islamic government.

After the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family), and in the time of the three vicegerents, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was still the sole Imam of the Muslim world who was appointed in this station by the Prophet (God bless him and his family) by God 's orders and was the only legitimate Guardian for the people.

If he does not leave the Muslim community, in the time of the three vicegerents before him, and stands up to protect Islam and to save the religion it does not mean that he had been assisting the other vicegerents; rather, it means that he had been carrying out his responsibilities as much as he could which had actually been choosing the bad instead of the worse as he himself emphasizes this in Nahj Al-Balaaqeh:

... فَخَشِيتُ إِنْ لَمْ أَنْصُرِ الْإِسْلَامَ وَأَهْلَهُ أَنْ أَرَى فِيهِ ثَلْماً أَوْ هَدْماً تَكُونُ الْمُصِيبَةُ بِهِ عَلَيَّ أَعْظَمَ مِنْ فَوْتِ وِلَايَتِكُمُ الَّتِي إِنَّمَا هِيَ مَتَاعُ أَيَّامٍ قَلَائِلَ يَزُولُ مِنْهَا مَا كَانَ كَمَا يَزُولُ السَّرَابُ أَوْ كَمَا يَتَقَشَّعُ السَّحَابُ فَنَهَضْتُ فِي تِلْكَ الْأَحْدَاثِ حَتَّى زَاحَ الْبَاطِلُ وَزَهَقَ وَاطْمَأَنَّ الدِّينُ وَ تَنَهْنَهَ... .

"So I feared that if I did not protect Islam and its followers, I might have to witness a breach in it or worse to watch it eliminated which was a greater calamity for me than having been denied my right, the vicarage, which was a worldly commodity and its days would soon be over like a mirage or like the moving clouds. So in that tumult I stood up until the invalid was destroyed and the religion was established and settled[118]"[119].[120]

 

2.     Deviations made by the previous vicegerents

This sermon was given by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) when, because of the deviations made by the previous vicegerents, people were led astray from the real Islam and the true tradition of the Prophet was long forgotten.

Here we will discuss some of the deviations made by the three vicegerents before Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in brief:

 

·        The prayers of "Taraawih" (prayers at night in the month of Ramadan)

Based on Bukhari 's records Omar had clearly called this prayer a deviation:

وَعَنْ بن شِهَابٍ عن عُرْوَةَ بن الزُّبَيْرِ عن عبد الرحمن بن عَبْدٍ القارىء أَنَّهُ قال خَرَجْتُ مع عُمَرَ بن الْخَطَّابِ رضي الله عنه لَيْلَةً في رَمَضَانَ إلى الْمَسْجِدِ فإذا الناس أَوْزَاعٌ مُتَفَرِّقُونَ يُصَلِّي الرَّجُلُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَيُصَلِّي الرَّجُلُ فَيُصَلِّي بِصَلَاتِهِ الرَّهْطُ فقال عُمَرُ إني أَرَى لو جَمَعْتُ هَؤُلَاءِ على قَارِئٍ وَاحِدٍ لَكَانَ أَمْثَلَ ثُمَّ عَزَمَ فَجَمَعَهُمْ على أُبَيِّ بن كَعْبٍ ثُمَّ خَرَجْتُ معه لَيْلَةً أُخْرَى وَالنَّاسُ يُصَلُّونَ بِصَلَاةِ قَارِئِهِمْ قال عُمَرُ نِعْمَ الْبِدْعَةُ هذه ...

"Abdulqari has narrated that: "on one of the nights in Ramadan I was going to Mosque with Omar ibn Khattab. People were saying their prayers in the mosque separately. Omar said: "if I make them all gather and say their prayers in a congregational prayer behind a reader of the Quran it would be better." So he made up his mind and gathered them all behind Obay ibn Ka 'ab. Then on another night I went with him to the Mosque and I saw people saying their recommendable prayer in congregation and behind their reader of the Quran and when Omar saw this he said: "What a nice deviation!"""[121].

Other scholars have also transmitted this story[122].[123] [124] [125]

 

This is all despite the remark by the Prophet who had said:

كلّ بدعة ضلالة.

"Any deviation will lead you astray"[126]

 

And also he had said that:

وكلّ ضلالة في النار.

"Anyone who goes astray will be thrown in the Fire[127]"[128][129]

·        Temporary wives and temporary marriage in the time of Hajj

Temporary wife and temporary marriage in the time of Hajj were both legitimate based on the view of the Quran and the Prophet 's tradition. But Omar prohibited both. In this regard, Bukhari writes the following in his Book "Sahih":

أنْزِلَتْ آيَةُ الْمُتْعَةِ في كِتَابِ اللَّهِ فَفَعَلْنَاهَا مع رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ولم يُنْزَلْ قُرْآنٌ يُحَرِّمُهُ ولم يَنْهَ عنها حتى مَاتَ قال رَجُلٌ بِرَأْيِهِ ما شَاءَ.

"The verse of "Temporary Marriage" was revealed in the Book of God (i.e. the Quran) and we acted according to it and the teachings of the Prophet and God never revealed another verse to prohibit it later until after the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) passed away one man, based on his own opinion and idea, said whatever he wanted (ad prohibited it)"[130]

In one of the versions of the book "Sahih Bukhari" (published by Daar Al-Fekr publications) it is stated that Muhammad ibn Ismail Bukhari had said that what he meant by the word "a man" in the above-mentioned remarks had been the vicegerent Omar ibn Khattab:

.. قال رجل برأيه ما شاء قال محمد يقال إنه عمر.

"… a man said whatever he desired. Muhammad ibn Ismail Bukhari says: "it is believed that this man had been Omar"[131]"

 

 Unfortunately this latter sentence has been omitted from some other versions of the book by Bukhari as ibn Hojr Asqalani also states this fact:

وكأن البخاري أشار بذلك إلى رواية الجريري عن مطرف فقال في آخره ارتأى رجل برأيه ما شاء يعني عمر كذا في الأصل.

"It appears that Bukhari had mentioned this (that what is meant here by "a man" had actually been Omar) in the narration Jariri had transmitted form Motref and had explained that what is meant by "a man who said whatever he desired according to his own opinion and idea" is Omar and in the original version of Sahih Bukhari this had been mentioned"[132].

Badr Al-Din Eyni, another interpreter of the book Sahih Bukhari has also confirmed the fact that in some versions of the Sahih Bukhari Omar 's name has been omitted. He writes in this regard:

وحكى الحميدي أنه وقع في البخاري في رواية أبي رجاء عن عمران ، قال البخاري : يقال : إنه عمر ، أي الرجل الذي عناه عمران بن حصين.

"Hamidi has said that in the book Sahih Bukhari, in the narration by Abu-Rajaa through Imran, Bukhari had said: "it is believed that "the man" has actually been Omar", that is, the man about whom Imran ibn Hassin had said those remarks had been Omar"[133].

Muslem has also transmitted this narration in his book Sahih[134].

He has further added:

حدثنا محمد بن الْمُثَنَّى وبن بَشَّارٍ قال بن الْمُثَنَّى حدثنا محمد بن جَعْفَرٍ حدثنا شُعْبَةُ قال سمعت قَتَادَةَ يحدث عن أبي نَضْرَةَ قال كان بن عَبَّاسٍ يَأْمُرُ بِالْمُتْعَةِ وكان بن الزُّبَيْرِ يَنْهَى عنها قال فَذَكَرْتُ ذلك لِجَابِرِ بن عبد اللَّهِ فقال على يَدَيَّ دَارَ الْحَدِيثُ تَمَتَّعْنَا مع رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فلما قام عُمَرُ قال إِنَّ اللَّهَ كان يُحِلُّ لِرَسُولِهِ ما شَاءَ بِمَا شَاءَ وَإِنَّ الْقُرْآنَ قد نَزَلَ مَنَازِلَهُ فَ ) وأتموا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلَّهِ ( كما أَمَرَكُمْ الله وَأَبِتُّوا نِكَاحَ هذه النِّسَاءِ فَلَنْ أُوتَى بِرَجُلٍ نَكَحَ امْرَأَةً إلى أَجَلٍ إلا رَجَمْتُهُ بِالْحِجَارَةِ.

"Abu-Ndhreh said: "ibn Abbass called temporary marriage allowed and legitimate but ibn Zobayr called it prohibited. So I referred to Jaaber ibn Abdullha Ansaari about their argument. He said to me: "the source of narration (about this) is with me; we took temporary wives in the time of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) but when Omar became vicegerent, he said: "God allowed for his Messenger whatever he willed and the Quran was also revealed in its due time; so you perform the Hajj completely and the way God has ordered but leave the temporary marriage in the time of Hajj. If a man is brought before me who had married a woman temporarily in the time of Hajj I will execute him!""""[135]

He also states that temporary marriage has been allowed until Omar prohibited it:

حدثني محمد بن رَافِعٍ حدثنا عبد الرَّزَّاقِ أخبرنا بن جُرَيْجٍ أخبرني أبو الزُّبَيْرِ قال سمعت جَابِرَ بن عبد اللَّهِ يقول كنا نَسْتَمْتِعُ بِالْقَبْضَةِ من التَّمْرِ وَالدَّقِيقِ الْأَيَّامَ على عَهْدِ رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَأَبِي بَكْرٍ حتى نهى عنه عُمَرُ في شَأْنِ عَمْرِو بن حُرَيْثٍ.

"Abuzobayr says: "I heard Jaaber ibn Abdullah Ansaari who said: "in the time of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) and Abu-Bakr we married women temporarily with a little flour and a bunch of dates until Omar prohibited temporary marriage after the story of Amr ibn Horayth""[136]".

 

Sarakhsi, a prominent Sunnite scholar, says in this regard:

وقد صحّ أنّ عمر رضى الله عنه نهى الناس عن المتعة فقال متعتان كانتا على عهد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وانا أنهى الناس عنهما متعة النساء ومتعة الحج.

"this is true that it was Omar who prohibited temporary marriage and said: "there were two kinds of temporary marriage in the time of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) that I prohibit them: one taking a temporary wife and the other temporary marriage in the time of Hajj""[137]

Ibn Ghadaameh and ibn Hazm have also stated this as a definite fact in their books[138].[139]

 

·        Attributing fabricated narrations to the Messenger of God indicating that Prophets do not leave anything as inheritance

Abu-Bakr deprived Fatimah Al-Zahra (peace be upon her) of her inheritance based on the following narration that he attributed to the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family):

إنّا معاشر الأنبياء لا نورث.

"We Prophets do not leave anything behind as inheritance"

Based on Sahih Muslme, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and Abbass, the Prophet 's uncle, called Abu-Bakr a liar, evildoer, sly and betrayer because of fabricating this narration and attributing it to the Messenger of God. The following are the exact remarks made by Muslem:

...ثُمَّ نَشَدَ عَبَّاسًا وَعَلِيًّا بِمِثْلِ ما نَشَدَ بِهِ الْقَوْمَ أَتَعْلَمَانِ ذلك قالا نعم قال فلما تُوُفِّيَ رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قال أبو بَكْرٍ أنا وَلِيُّ رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَجِئْتُمَا تَطْلُبُ مِيرَاثَكَ من بن أَخِيكَ وَيَطْلُبُ هذا مِيرَاثَ امْرَأَتِهِ من أَبِيهَا فقال أبو بَكْرٍ قال رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ما نُورَثُ ما تركنا صَدَقَةٌ فَرَأَيْتُمَاهُ كَاذِبًا آثِمًا غَادِرًا خَائِنًا...

"… Then Omar made Abbass and Ali (peace be upon him) swear and then said: "do you concur that when the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) passed away, Abu-Bakr said: "I am the guardian of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)" so you two came to him, one to take the inheritance of his nephew and the other to take the inheritance of his wife from him; then Abu-Bakr said: "the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) said: "We Prophets do not leave anything behind as inheritance and whatever is left of us is charity""; then you two called him (Abu-Bakr) a liar and a sinner and a sly traitor"? and they both said: "yes"".[140]

 

This narration had never been narrated by anyone except Abu-Bakr, himself, and the Suunite scholars have considered this narration among those who have only been transmitted by Abu-Bakr alone. Among these scholars are Abulqasim Baghawi (deceased, 317 H), Abubakr Shaafeii (deceased, 354 H), ibn Asaker (deceased, 571 H), Siyooti (deceased, 911 H), ibn Hojr Makki (deceased, 973 H), and Mottaghi Hendi (deceased, 975 H).

 

Siyooti, for instance, writes:

أخرج أبو القاسم البغوي وأبو بكر الشافعي في فوائده وابن عساكر عن عائشة قالت : إختلفوا في ميراثه صلى الله عليه وسلم ، فما وجدوا عند أحد في ذلك علما . فقال أبو بكر : سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول : إنا معاشر الأنبياء لا نورث.

"Abulqasim Baghawi, Abubakr Shaafeii in his book Fawaaed, and ibn Asaaker have all transmitted a narration from Ayesheh which is as follows: "people argued over the issue of the Prophet 's inheritance and they could find the solution with no one. then Abubakr said: "I heard the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) who said: "we Prophets do not leave anything behind as inheritance"[141]"[142]"[143]"[144][145][146][147]

This narration which has only been narrated by Abu-Bakr is in direct contrast with the following, direct statement in the Quran:

«وورث سليمان داود». النمل/ 16

"And Solomon was David´s heir."

And also in another verse refers to Prophet Zacharias ' remarks:

«فهب لي من لدنك وليّاً يرثني ويرث من آل يعقوب». مريم/ 6.

"(One that) will (truly) represent me, and represent the posterity of Jacob; and make him"

These remarks by Abu-Bakr are also in contrast with the remarks of Fatimah Al-Zahra (peace be upon her) who said:

"God will never be satisfied, O ' son of Abu-Haghaafeh (Ab-Bakr), that you inherit from your father but I do not inherit from my father! What a vile deviation you have made[148]![149]"[150]

In the book "Musnad" by Ahmad these remarks can be found:

أنّها قالت لأبي بكر: أنت ورثت رسول اللّه أم أهله ؟ قال : بل أهله.

"Fatimah Al-Zahra (peace be upon her) said to Abu-Bakr: "do you inherit from the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family) or his family members?" Abu-Bakr said: "of course his family members""[151]

 

Hanbali has also transmitted the following remarks from ibn Jawzy:

وفى كلام سبط ابن الجوزى رحمه الله أنه رضى الله تعالى عنه كتب لها بفدك ودخل عليه عمررضى الله تعالى عنه فقال ما هذا فقال كتاب كتبته فاطمه بميراثها من ابيها فقال مماذا تنفق على المسلمين وقد حار بتك العرب كما ترى ثم احذ عمر الكتاب فشقه.

"And ibn Jawzy has said that Abu-Bakr signed the documents of Fadak for Fatimah Al-Zahra (peace be upon her) and then Omar came to him and asked: "what is this?" Abu-Bakr said: "this is a document which shows what Fatimah has inherited from her father". Omar said: "why do you give out the wealth of the Muslim people to others while the Arabs are now fighting you?" then Omar took that piece of paper and tore it apart".[152]

 

·        Deviating the tradition of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)

Hundreds of deviations were made in the religion after the Messenger of God and these deviations were so abundant that imam Shaafeii narrates the following from Wahab ibn Keysan in his book called "Al-Amm":

كلّ سنن رسول الله قد غيّرت حتى الصلاة.

"All the traditions of the Messenger of God were altered and deviated even prayers"

Bukhari has also transmitted a similar narration from Zahri[153]:

حدثنا عَمْرُو بن زُرَارَةَ قال أخبرنا عبد الْوَاحِدِ بن وَاصِلٍ أبو عُبَيْدَةَ الْحَدَّادُ عن عُثْمَانَ بن أبي رَوَّادٍ أَخِي عبد الْعَزِيزِ قال سمعت الزُّهْرِيَّ يقول دَخَلْتُ على أَنَسِ بن مَالِكٍ بِدِمَشْقَ وهو يَبْكِي فقلت ما يُبْكِيكَ فقال لَا أَعْرِفُ شيئا مِمَّا أَدْرَكْتُ إلا هذه الصَّلَاةَ وَهَذِهِ الصَّلَاةُ قد ضُيِّعَتْ وقال بَكْرُ حدثنا محمد بن بَكْرٍ الْبُرْسَانِيُّ أخبرنا عُثْمَانُ بن أبي رَوَّادٍ نَحْوَهُ.

"Zahri says: "I went to visit Anas ibn Malek in Damascus and I saw him crying so I asked him why are you crying? He said: "I was happy that from all that I leaned from the Messenger of God the prayers have been kept intact but now the prayers have also been altered and spoiled." And Bakr also says that Muhammad ibn Barsani has narrated the same thing from Othman ibn Abi Rawaad""[154].

Ibn Abd Al-Bar has also transmitted this story.[155]

There is an abundant number of other instances in which the rulers of the Muslim community caused deviations and did against the Prophet 's tradition due to their lack of knowledge about real Islam and they did so to the extent that the signs of the real Islam were eliminated and so when Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said his prayers people said that they way he said the prayers reminded them of the way the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family).

 

Here Muslem has narrated the following narration with his own chain from Mutref:

حدثنا يحيى بن يحيى وَخَلَفُ بن هِشَامٍ جميعا عن حَمَّادٍ قال يحيى أخبرنا حَمَّادُ بن زَيْدٍ عن غَيْلَانَ عن مُطَرِّفٍ قال صَلَّيْتُ أنا وَعِمْرَانُ بن حُصَيْنٍ خَلْفَ عَلِيِّ بن أبي طَالِبٍ فَكَانَ إذا سَجَدَ كَبَّرَ وإذا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ كَبَّرَ وإذا نَهَضَ من الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ كَبَّرَ فلما انْصَرَفْنَا من الصَّلَاةِ قال أَخَذَ عِمْرَانُ بِيَدِي ثُمَّ قال لقد صلى بِنَا هذا صَلَاةَ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم أو قال قد ذَكَّرَنِي هذا صَلَاةَ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم.

"Mutref has said: "Imran ibn Hossain and I were saying our prayer behind Imam Ali (peace be upon him). When he went down for prostration or finished prostration and sat up or when he finished every two units of prayer he said "God is the greatest". When we finished our prayer Imran ibn Hossain took my hand and said: "this way we said prayers like the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)" or he said: "this prayer reminded me of the prayer of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)""[156]".

Bukhari has also narrated from Imran ibn Hossain that:

صلّى مع علي بالبصرة فقال: ذكرنا هذا الرجل صلاة كنّا نصليها مع رسول اللّه صلى الله عليه وسلم.

"We were saying prayers with Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in Basra so Imran ibn Hossain said: "this man reminded us of the way we said prayer with the Prophet (God bless him and his family)""[157].

 

In yet another narration, Bukhari has transmitted the following narration from Mutraf ibn Abdullha:

صَلَّيْتُ خَلْفَ عَلِيِّ بن أبي طَالِبٍ رضي الله عنه أنا وَعِمْرَانُ بن حُصَيْنٍ فَكَانَ إذا سَجَدَ كَبَّرَ وإذا رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ كَبَّرَ وإذا نَهَضَ من الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ كَبَّرَ فلما قَضَى الصَّلَاةَ أَخَذَ بِيَدِي عِمْرَانُ بن حُصَيْنٍ فقال قد ذَكَّرَنِي هذا صَلَاةَ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم أو قال لقد صلى بِنَا صَلَاةَ مُحَمَّدٍ صلى الله عليه وسلم.

"Mutraf ibn Abdullah said: "Imran ibn Hossain and I were saying prayers behind Imam Ali (peace be upon him) When he went down for prostration or finished prostration and sat up or when he finished every two units of prayer he said "God is the greatest". When we finished our prayer Imran ibn Hossain took my hand and said: "this way we said prayers like the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)" or he said: "this prayer reminded me of the prayer of the Messenger of God (God bless him and his family)"""[158].

 

Some people had also got used to excessive usage of the Muslim wealth and treasures in the time of Othman who expected to keep on wasting the Muslims ' money in the time of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) the way they did in the time of Othman; therefore, one of the reasons why Imam Ali (peace be upon him) rejected their request that he become the vicegerent at first was to tell them that if they wanted him to become a vicegerent like the ones before and to rule them against the Book of God and the tradition of the Prophet he would not accept vicarage at all.

 

The second doubt: the rejection of conditioned vicarage is not in contrast with the verse: "… وَ ما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لا مُؤْمِنَةٍ"

Another doubt put forward is that "isn 't rejecting Imamat, which is a Divine station, in contrast with the following verse in the Quran that considers any kind of disobeying God and his Prophet as going astray?":

وَ ما كانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَمْراً أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ ُ مِن أَمْرِهِمْ وَ مَنْ يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلالاً مُبِينا . الاحزاب/36.

"It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path."

 

Response

An abundant number of the people who gave their allegiance to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) were those who could not stand Othman and his unfair ways any longer and wanted to make Imam Ali (peace be upon him) to rule just like the first two vicegerents! It was clarified in the discussion above that what Imam Ali (peace be upon him) meant by telling those people "leave me and go after others" was that "if you want me to follow the previous vicegerents ' way of government then I am not willing to accept being the ruler of such kind of government and so you should go and find another one who accepts such a request from you". Accepting such a government not only is not in accordance with the above mentioned verse from the Quran, but it is also the sharp contrast with the orders of God Almighty, for, accepting to rule in a government which is void of justice and in which discrimination is so deeply rooted that Arabs and non-Arabs are not considered equal is directly disobeying God. This is just like the following verse in the Quran in which God has addressed Prophet David:

يا داوُدُ إِنَّا جَعَلْناكَ خَليفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ فَاحْكُمْ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوى‏. ص/ 26.

"O David! We did indeed make thee a vicegerent on earth: so judge thou between men in truth (and justice): Nor follow thou the lusts (of thy heart)" 

What Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said today was exactly like what he said on the day of "Shawraa" to Abdurrahman ibn Awf who said that he would give his allegiance to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) on the condition that he follow Abu-Bakr and Omar 's tradition, but Imam Ali (peace be upon him) did not accept and said:

فقال: أسير فيكم بكتاب الله وسنة نبيه ما استطعت.

"I will only follow the Book of God and the tradition of the Prophet as much as I am able to[159]".

 

The third doubt: Did Imam Ali (peace be upon him) have any preconditions for accepting vicarage?

Some of the Sunnites have put forth this doubt that: "if you, the Shi 'ites, believe that Imamat is a station that someone is installed in it by God then why did Imam Ali (peace be upon him) set some preconditions for accepting it in this sermon, although no Prophet has ever mentioned any preconditions for accepting his Divine Mission, and you believe that Prophethood and Imamat are both Divine stations given to specific persons by God. Therefore setting any kind of precondition, whether for Imamat or Prophethood is in contrast with them being Divine stations and Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has mentioned his precondition in this sermon through the following remarks:

وَاعْلَمُوا أَنِّى إِنْ أَجَبْتُكُمْ رَكِبْتُ بِكُمْ مَا أَعْلَمُ وَ لَمْ أُصْغِ إِلَى قَوْلِ الْقَائِلِ وَ عَتْبِ الْعَاتِبِ...

"so you must know that if I accept your request I will treat you the way I know and I will have no regard for the reproachers and will not listen to this and that""[160]

 

Response

The greatest mistake of the person who has cast this doubt is that he has confused two separate issues of Divine Mission of the Prophets, which included inviting people to worshipping the one and the only God, and the issue of establishing governments by them.

Which Prophet can be found in the history who had tried to establish a government without having enough proponents and power?

Which Prophet can be found who had tried to establish a government without the necessary grounds being set?

Which Prophet can be found who had established his government based on the people 's desires?

Our answer to this doubt is four-fold:

First, what Imam Ali (peace be upon him) meant in this sermon is this: "if I accept the government (and not Imamat) I will rule according to the Quran and the tradition of the Prophet and not the way you people like me to." And he said the same thing in that committee of six people too. In fact he had no conditions other than acting based on the religion!

Second, the Quran clearly states that a Muslim ruler must rule based on God 's orders and not based on people 's desires:

 

«لتحكم بين الناس بما أراك اللّه» النساء/ 105

"that thou mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah"

«وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ» المائدةء/ 45

"And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers."

«وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْفاسِقُونَ» المائدةء/ 47

 "If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel."

 

Third, did Prophet Moses rule according to people 's will? If this were true then he shouldn 't have disagreed with the people when they started worshipping a calf.

Four, if a ruler, whether Muslim or non-Muslim, rules based on the people 's will then the society would be thrown into an unending tumult because clearly people 's wills are different and many and they are all in contrast with each other.

Did the people ask Imam Ali (peace be upon him) to rule exactly based on the Quran and the tradition of the Prophet and he did not accept their request or that they were after taking advantage of their allegiance with him? And this was exactly why Imam Ali (peace be upon him) called loudly:

إنّ بيعتي لا تكون في خلوة إلّا في المسجد ظاهراً .

"So giving allegiance to me must not be done secretly and it must be done openly in the mosque".[161]

Why do you think that Talhe and Zobayr came to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) with a number of migrants and the Muslims native to Medina to give him their allegiance but Imam Ali (peace be upon him) did not accept that and said:

لا حاجة لي في أمركم؟

"I do not need to rule over you"[162]

What was really behind their insisting on giving Imam Ali (peace be upon him) their allegiance secretly that finally Imam Ali (peace be upon him) told them:

أما إذ أبيتم فإن بيعتي لا تكون سرّاً فاخرجوا إلى المسجد فخرجوا.

"If you really insist on giving me your allegiance then this cannot be done secretly; so go to the mosque" and so they did. [163]

Is it not true that it was Imam Ali 's ironclad justice and the fact that he never succumbed to their illegitimate demands that made them wage the war of Jamal against Imam Ali (peace be upon him)?

Have you ever wondered why Imam Ali (peace be upon him) first asked the migrants and the Muslims native to Medina to give him their allegiance then he accepted the other people 's allegiance?

وأبى هو إلا المسجد فلما دخل دخل المهاجرون والأنصار فبايعوه ثم بايعه الناس.

"And Imam Ali (peace be upon him) did not accept their allegiance until they all entered the mosque and there first the Migrants and then the Muslims native to Medina entered the mosque and gave him their allegiance and then the other people followed them".[164]

 

The fourth doubt: wasn 't declining the vicarage a kind of evading responsibility by Imam Ali (peace be upon him)?

Another doubt which is cast on this sermon is the following:

"isn 't this sentence by Imam Ali (peace be upon him): "if you leave me be then I will be just like any of you" kind of evading responsibility?"[165]

 

Response:

This is not evading responsibility; rather this is evading a government which is according to the will of the people and against that of God and the sentence "for that whom you appoint as your guardian" in this sermon is the best proof for this claim. This is because Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in fact says that the ruling which is according to people 's will is not the one that I am willing to accept so you can leave such a government to anyone who is willing to accept it. Then he continues:

«وَ أَنَا لَكُمْ وَزِيراً خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ مِنِّي أَمِيراً»

"If I am appointed as your advisor it is better for you than if I am appointed as your ruler".[166]

What Imam Ali (peace be upon him) means here is that if I do not have any responsibility in such a government then I have no obligations to attend to so I can be as a consultant like before and help when the need arises. But if I accept to rule then I will eliminate all the wrong criteria of the past vicegerents and will dismiss all the unworthy people from their occupations and will instead appoint worthy men in those positions. He reiterated this fact in his first speech after his vicarage as follows:

والذي بعثه بالحق، ولتُساطُنَّ سَوطَ القِدْر حتّى يَعُودَ أسْفَلُكُم أعْلاكُم وأعلاكم أسْفَلَكُم، ولَيَسْبِقَنّ سابِقُون كانوا قَصَّرُوا وَلَيُقَصِرَنَّ سَبّاقُون كانوا سَبَقُوا.

"I swear by God who rightfully gave the Prophet (God bless him and his family) his Divine Mission, that you will be tested harshly like the rocks which are thrown in a sieve or the food on fire which is turned up and down. Those who have had brilliant records in Islam and have, so far, been in the corners will be given positions and those unworthy people who had taken those positions will be dismissed"[167].

He also added that all the wealth that they had gathered through illegitimate ways will be confiscated and sent back to Muslims ' treasury:

واللّه لو وَجَدْتُه قد تُزوّج به النساء ومُلك به الإماء لرَدَدْتُه.

"By God I will seize and give back to its rightful owners the illegitimately earned wealth no matter where I find it, whether you had married your wives with it or that you had bought slave women with it! Because justice does well to all and those who feel that justice is hard for them to bear then oppression will be harder to bear"[168].

We can conclude that what Imam Ali (peace be upon him) meant by those words were that "if I accept the responsibility of ruling over you I will do it the way that the Prophet (God bless him and his family) did and you will face the same problems as you did in the time of the Prophet":

وإن بَلِيَّتَكم قد عادت كهيئتها يوم بعث اللّه نبيّكم والذي بعثه بالحق.

"So beware that you will be put to the same tests as the ones you were put to in the time of the Prophet (God bless him and his family)"[169]

Indeed facing the same tests and the hardships as the ones in the time of the Prophet has been very difficult for the people and then when they see that they cannot bear such justice they would try to fight a rightful vicegerent and in so doing they would not only have to bear the burden of ousting a rightful vicegerent but also the great sin of fighting their Imam! And this is exactly why Imam Ali (peace be upon him) tells them that "It would be better for you that I be your counselor" and this sentence does not mean that he has denied assuming his Divine responsibility; rather it is an objection to the illegitimate demands of the people and also rejecting a government which does not enjoy the Islamic characteristics.

 

A response to the similar doubts as the ones cast on the 92nd sermon

The aforementioned response provided for the doubt cast on the 92nd sermon, there is no need to provide a response for the doubts cast on other sermons such as the 137th and the 229th as they are also about Imam Ali 's denying to accept people 's allegiance.

For instance, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) says to the people in the 137th sermon that:

... فَأَقْبَلْتُمْ إِلَيَّ إِقْبَالَ الْعُوذِ الْمَطَافِيلِ عَلَى أَوْلَادِهَا تَقُولُونَ الْبَيْعَةَ الْبَيْعَةَ قَبَضْتُ كَفِّي فَبَسَطْتُمُوهَا وَ نَازَعَتْكُمْ يَدِي فَجَاذَبْتُمُوهَا...

"You rushed to me to give me your allegiance, after Othman was killed, like the camels toward their children and you repeatedly asked me to accept your allegiance but I denied but you insisted some more".[170]

 

He also says in the 229th sermon that:

وَبَسَطْتُمْ يَدِي فَكَفَفْتُهَا وَمَدَدْتُمُوهَا فَقَبَضْتُهَا ثُمَّ تَدَاكَكْتُمْ عَلَيَّ تَدَاكَّ الْإِبِلِ الْهِيمِ عَلَى حِيَاضِهَا يَوْمَ وِرْدِهَا حَتَّى انْقَطَعَتِ‏ النَّعْلُ وَسَقَطَ الرِّدَاءُ وَوُطِئَ الضَّعِيفُ وَبَلَغَ مِنْ سُرُورِ النَّاسِ بِبَيْعَتِهِمْ إِيَّايَ أَنِ ابْتَهَجَ بِهَا الصَّغِيرُ وَهَدَجَ إِلَيْهَا الْكَبِيرُ وَتَحَامَلَ نَحْوَهَا الْعَلِيلُ وَحَسَرَتْ إِلَيْهَا الْكِعَاب.

"You insisted to give me your allegiance and I denied but you insisted some more. Then like the thirsty camels which rush towards water you rushed to me and gathered around me so tightly that my shoelace was broken and the cloak fell off my shoulders and the weak were trampled by the people. The people were so happy that they had given me their allegiance that their children ran to me and their elders came to me with their walking sticks and their sick were carried towards me on their shoulders and their young girls came to me without their covers of the face".[171]

 

Conclusion

We can conclude here that there remarks by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) were following the vicarage of three vicegerents who had made a lot of deviations in the religion, some of which were explained above. They had adapted people to their oppressive ways where Othman, for instance, gave away the Muslims ' wealth easily to his relatives such as giving one third of the plunders that they had gained in Africa to Marwan and etc. The people who had come to give their allegiance to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) wanted him to rule like this. Therefore, what is meant by these words of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) that: "leave me and go to somebody else" mean that: "if you want me to take the path that the previous vicegerents did I am not willing to do so and rule like that so go and find those who would accept such a ruling".

Moreover, these remarks by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) have nothing in contrast with his Divine Imamat because people 's allegiance and establishing a government is one of the several aspects of the Divine Imamat and it is this government which requires people to be willing and to be prepared for it. Just as the grounds were not set for the Prophet (God bless him and his family) to establish his government in Mecca. But the station of Imamat which is a Divine station does not need people 's acceptance. Based on the verse of the Quran installing the vicegerent and Imam is done only by God 's will and so, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) had been the Imam in the time of the three vicegerents before him and even after his martyrdom.

 

Good luck.

  

 



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[30] - Al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ( died 671 A.H. ) , al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran , vol. 3 , p. 259 , publisher : Dar al-shoab – Cairo .

[31] - Al-Tabarani , Abu al-Qasim Soleiman ibn Ahmad ibn Ayoub ( died 360 A.H. ) , al-Mahjam al-Awsat , vol. 4 , p. 247 , research by Tariq ibn Awazullah ibn Muhammad , Abdul Mohsen ibn Ibrahim al-Husseini , publisher ; Dar al-Haramein – Cairo – 1415 A.H.

 

[32] - Al-Haithami , Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi Bakr (807 A.H. ) , Majmah al-Zavaed va Manbah al-Favaed , vol. 10 , p. 63 , publisher : Dar al-Rian Leltras / Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Cairo , Beirut – 1407 A.H .

[33] - Al-Fesvi , Abu Yusuf Yaghoub ibn Sufian ( died 277 A.H. ) , al-Mahrefah va al-Tarikh , vol. 1 , p. 121 , Research : khalil al-Mansour , publisher :  Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1419 A.H. – 1999 A.D .

 

[34] - Al-Tirmidhi , Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hussein Abu Abdullah al-Hakim ( died 360 A.H. ) , Navader al-usool fi Ahadith al-Rasol holy prophet(peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) (PBUH) , vol. 3 , p. 61 , research by Abdul Rahman Amira , publisher : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1992 A.D.

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[36] - Al-Hakem , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 457 , Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

 

[37] - Al-Quendozi al-Hanafi , al-Shaykh Soleiman ibn Ibrahim ( died 1294 A.H. ) , Yanabih al-Movaddah Lezavi al-Qurba , vol. 1 , p. 71 , Bab 3 , research by Sayed Ali Jamal Ashraf al-Husseini , publisher : Dar al-Osvah Leltabaha va al-Nashr – Qom , al-Tabaha : 1  , 141 A.H.

[38] - Al-Haithami , Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hajar ( died 937 A.H. ) , al-savaegh al-Moharaghah Ali Ahl al-Rafaz va al-zelal va al-zandaghah , 187 vol. 2 , p. 445 , research by Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah al-Turkey , kamel Muhammad al-kharrat , publisher ; institute of al-Resala – Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1997 A.D.

 

[39] - Al-Tabari , Muhammad ibn Jarir Abu Jafar (310 A.H. ) , Jameh al-Bayan ane Tavil ayal – Quran , vol. 13 , p. 142 , Taghdim : al-Shaykh khalil al-Mys / record and authorization and extrapolation : Sadafi Jamil al-Attar ,  publisher : Dar al-Fekr , Beirut – 1415 A.H . – 1995 A.D.

[40] - Ibn Abi Hatam al-Razi , Abdul Rahman ibn Muhammad Idris ( died 327 A.H. ) , Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim , Research : Asad Muhammad al-Tayeb , publisher : al-Maktabah al-Asryah – Sidon .

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[42] - Ibn kasir al-Damascene, Ismail ibn Umar Abu al-Fada al-Qurashi , ( died 774 A.H. ) , Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim , vol. 2 , p. 520 , publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1401 A.H.

[43] - Al-Hakem , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 129 , Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

[44]   - Al-Suyuti , Jalal al-Din Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 4 , p. 608 , publisher : Dar al-Fekr Beirut – 1993 A.H.

 

[45] - Al-Asbahani , Abu Nahim Ahmad ibn Abdullah ( died 430 A.H. ) , Halyah al-olya va Tabaghat al-Asfia , vol. 1 , p. 64 , publisher : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Beirut , al-Tabaha :  4 , 1405 A.H .

[46] - Al-kufi , Muhammad ibn Soleiman ( died 300A.H. ) , Managhib al-Imam Ami al-MoamininAli (AS) , vol. 1 , p. 448 , Research : al-shaykh Muhammad Baqer al-Mahmoudi , publisher : Majmah Ahya al-Seqafa al-Islami – Qom , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1412 A.H.

[47] - AL-Ganji al-Shafei , al-Imam al-Hafiz Abi Abdullah Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Muhammad al-Qurashi , kefayah al-Taleb fi Managhib Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) , p. 163 , research and correct and suspension ; Muhammad Hadi Amini , publisher ; Dar Ahya Tras Ahl Bayt (AS) , Tehran , al-Tabaha : 3  , 1404 A.H .

 

[48] - Al-Hakem , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 73 , 74 , Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

 

[49] - Ibn kasir al-Damascene, Ismail ibn Umar Abu al-Fada al-Qurashi , ( died 774 A.H. ) , Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim , vol. 4 , p. 114 , publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1401 A.H.

[50] - Ibn kasir al-Damascene, Ismail ibn Umar Abu al-Fada al-Qurashi , ( died 774 A.H. ) , al-sirah al-Nobovyah , vol. 4 , p. 416 , Research ; Mustafa Abdul Vahed , publisher ; Dar al-Mahrafah Leltabaha va al-Nashr va al-Tozih  - Beirut – Lebanon , 1395 A.H. – 1976 A.D .

[51] - Ibn kasir al-Damascene, Ismail ibn Umar Abu al-Fada al-Qurashi , ( died 774 A.H. ) , al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 5 , p. 228 , research and auditing and suspension : Ali Shiri , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut – Lebanon , press : 1  , 1408 A.H. – 1988 A.D .

[52] - Albani , Muhammad Nasser , sahih al-Jameh al-saghir , vol. 1 , p. 136 , H – 2748 , publisher ; al-Maktab al-Islami , al-Tabaha al-Mojaddada va al-Mazidah va al-Monghaah 1408 A.H.

[53] - Al-Haithami , Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Abi Bakr (807 A.H. ) , Majmah al-Zavaed va Manbah al-Favaed , vol. 1 , p. 170 , publisher : Dar al-Rian Leltras / Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Cairo , Beirut – 1407 A.H .

 

[54] - Al-Taftazani , , Saad al-Din Masoud ibn Umar Ibn Abdullah ( died 791 A.H. ) , Sharh al-Maghased fi Elm al-Ahkam , vol. 2 , p. 303 , publisher : Dar al-Maharef al-Nehmanyah – Pakistan , al-Tabaha ; 1   1401 A.H. – 1981 A.D .

 

[55] - Al-Qari , Ali ibn Sultan Muhammad ( died 1014 A.H. ) , Merqah al-Mafatih sharh Meshkat al-Masabih , vol. 11 , p. 307 , research by Jamal Itani , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Lebanon / Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1 ,  1422 A.H. – 2001 A.D.

 

[56] - AL-Manawi , Muhammad Abdul Rahouf ibn Ali ibn Zein al-Abedin ( died 1031 A.H. ) , Feiz al-Qadir sharh al-Jameh al-Saghir , vol. 3 , p. 15 , publisher ; al-Maktabah al-Tejaryah al-kubra – Egypt , al-Tabaha : 1  , 1356 A.H .

[57] - Al-Hakem , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 132 , Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

[58] - Ibn Asaker al-Damascene al-Shafei , Abi al-Qasim Ali ibn Hassan ibn Hobah Allah ibn Abdullah , (571 A.H. ) , The history of the city of Damascus and Zekr Fazloha va Tasmih mana Haloha menal Amasel , vol. 42 p. 387 , research : Moheb al-Din Abi Saiid Umar ibn Gheramah al-Amri , publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1995 A.D .

 

[59] - Al-Hendi , Ala al-Din Ali al-Mottaqi ibn Hesam al-Din ( died 975 A.H. ) , kanz al-Ahmal fi sunnan al-Aghval va al-Afhal , vol. 11 , p. 282 , research by Mahmoud Umar al-Domiati , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1  , 1419 A.H. – 1998 A.D .

[60]  - Al-Asbahani , Abu Nahim Ahmad ibn Abdullah ( died 430 A.H. ) , Halyah al-olya va Tabaghat al-Asfia , vol. 1 , p. 64 , publisher : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Beirut , al-Tabaha :  4 , 1405 A.H .

[61] - Al-kharazmi , al-Moaffagh ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-kubra al-Mecci al-Hanafi , ( died 568 A.H. ) , al-Managhib , p. 85 , research by al-Shaykh Malik al-Mahmoudi , institute of Sayyad al-Shahada (May Allah’s peace be upon him ) (AS) , institute of al-Nashr al-Islami al-Tabeha Lejamaha al-Modaresin Qom al-Mosharafah al-Tabaha ; 2 , Rabi al-Thani 1414 A.H.

[62] - Al-Quendozi al-Hanafi , al-Shaykh Soleiman ibn Ibrahim ( died 1294 A.H. ) , Yanabih al-Movaddah Lezavi al-Qurba , vol. 2 , p. 488 , research by Sayed Ali Jamal Ashraf al-Husseini , publisher : Dar al-Osvah Leltabaha va al-Nashr – Qom , al-Tabaha : 1  , 1416  A.H.

[63] - Al-Hakim al-Nishaburi , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 162 , H - 4715 Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

 

[64] - Al-Tabarani , Abu al-Qasim Soleiman ibn Ahmad ibn Jacob ( died 360 A.H.) , al-Mahjam al-kabir , vol. 11 / 65 , research by Hamdi ibn Abdul Majid al-salafi , publisher ; Maktabah al-Zahra – Mosel , al-Tabaha ; 2 , 1404 A.H. – 1983 A.D .  Al-Jazri , Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ( died 630 A.H. ), Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 109 , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refahi , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D .

[65] - Al-Baghdadi, Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ali ibn sabet al-khatib (died 463 A.H.) , Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 4, p. 348,  Publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut.

[66] - Al-Suyuti , Jalal al-Din Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , Jameh al-Ahadith ( al-Jameh al-saghir va zavaed ) , vol. 1 , p. 415 , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr Leltabaha va al-Nashr va al-Tozih – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1401 A.H. – 1981 A.D.

[67] - Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah Al-Hakim ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 137 , Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

 

[68] - Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah Al-Hakim ( died 405 A.H. ) , al-Mostadrak alay al-Sahihain , vol. 3 , p. 137 , Research by Mustafa Abdul Qader Ata , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1411 A.H. – 1990 A.D .

 

[69] - Al-Asghalani al-Shafei , Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl ( died 852 A.H.  ), Lesan al-Mizan , vol. 2 , p. 22 , Research : Daera al-Mahref al-Nezamyah – India , publisher : institute of al-Ahlami Lelmatbohat – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 3 , 1406 A.H. – 1986 A.D.

 

[70] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died 256 A.H. ) , al-Tarikh al-kabir , vol. 2 , p. 255 , research by al-sayed Hashem al-Nadawi , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr ;

[71] - Ibn Asaker al-Damascene al-Shafei , Abi al-Qasim Ali ibn Hassan ibn Hobah Allah ibn Abdullah , (571 A.H. ) , The history of the city of Damascus and Zekr Fazloha va Tasmih mana Haloha menal Amasel , vol. 42 p. 408 , research : Moheb al-Din Abi Saiid Umar ibn Gheramah al-Amri , publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1995 A.D .

[72] - Al-Nimri al-Qurtabi al-Maleki , Abu Umar Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Bar ( died 463 A.H. ) , al-Estihab fi Mahrafah al-Ashab , vol. 3 , p. 1104 , Research : Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui , publisher ; Dar al-Jil – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1412 A.H.

[73] - Al-Jazri , Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ( died 630 A.H. ), Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 109 , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refahi , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D .

[74] - Al-Thaalbi , Abdul Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Makhlouf ( died 875 A.H. ) , al-Javaher al-Hesan fi Tafsir al-Quran , vol. 1 , p. 52 , publisher ; institute of al-Ahlami Lelmatbohat – Beirut ;

[75] - Al-Novy al-Shafei , Mohi al-Din Abu Zakarya Yahya ibn Sharaf ibn Mirh ibn Jummah ibn Huzam ( died 676 A.H. ) , Tahzib al-Asma va al-Loghat , vol. 1 , p. 317 , Research : Maktab al-Bohos va al-Derasat , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1996 A.D.

[76]  AL-Shirazi al-shafei , Abu Isaac Ibrahim ibn Ali ibn Yusuf ( died 476 A.H. ) , Tabaghat al-Fuqaha , vol. 1 , p. 23 , research by khalil al-Mys , publisher ; Dar al-Qalam – Beirut ;

 

[77] - Al-Tabari , Abu Jafar Moheb al-Din Ahmad ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad ( died 694 A.H. ) , Zakhaer al-Aqabi fi Managhib zoy al-Qurba , vol. 1 , p. 78 , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah al-Mesryah – Egypt ;

[78] - Al-Jundi al-kendi , Baha al-Din Muhammad ibn Yusuf ibn Jacob , al-solok fi Tabaghat al-Ulama va al-Molok , vol. 1 , p. 80 , research by Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Hussein al-Aku al-Havali , Dar al-Nashr ; Maktabah al-Ershad – Sanaa , al-Tabaha : 2  , 1995 A.D.

[79] - Al-Salehi al-Shami , Muhammad ibn Yusuf ( died 942 A.H. ) , Sabal al-Huda va al-Reshad fi Sayrah khair al-Ebad , vol. 11 , p. 289 , Research : Adel Ahmad Abdul Mojod and Ali Muhammad Mouawaz , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1414 A.H.

[80] - Al-Nimri al-Qurtabi al-Maleki , Abu Umar Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Bar ( died 463 A.H. ) , al-Estihab fi Mahrafah al-Ashab , vol. 3 , p. 1104 , Research : Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui , publisher ; Dar al-Jil – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1412 A.H.

[81] - Al-Jazri , Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ( died 630 A.H. ), Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 110 , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refahi , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D .

[82] - Al-Novy al-Shafei , Mohi al-Din Abu Zakarya Yahya ibn Sharaf ibn Mirh ibn Jummah ibn Huzam ( died 676 A.H. ) , Tahzib al-Asma va al-Loghat , vol. 1 , p. 317 , Research : Maktab al-Bohos va al-Derasat , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1996 A.D.

 

[83] - Al-Ansari al-Qurtabi , Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ( died 671 A.H. ) , al-Jameh al-Ahkam al-Quran , vol. 1 , p. 35 , publisher : Dar al-shoab – Cairo .

[84] - Al-Shaibani , Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah ( died 241 A.H. ) , Fazael al-sahabah , vol. 2 , p. 646 , research by Dr. vasiullah Muhammad Abbas , publisher ; institute of al-Resala – Beirut ,  al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1403 A.H. – 1983 A.D.

[85] - Ibn Asaker al-Damascene al-Shafei , Abi al-Qasim Ali ibn Hassan ibn Hobah Allah ibn Abdullah , (571 A.H. ) , The history of the city of Damascus and Zekr Fazloha va Tasmih mana Haloha menal Amasel , vol. 42 p. 399 , research : Moheb al-Din Abi Saiid Umar ibn Gheramah al-Amri , publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1995 A.D .

[86]   - Al-zahbi al-shafei , Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman , (748 A.H. ) , Tarikh al-Islam va vafyat al-Mashahir va al-Ahlam , vol. 3 , p. 638 , research by Dr. Umar Abdul Salam Tadmouri , publisher : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Lebanon / Beirut , al-tabaha : 1 , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

[87] - Al-Shaibani , Ahmad ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah ( died 241 A.H. ) , Fazael al-sahabah , vol. 2 , p. 646 , research by Dr. vasiullah Muhammad Abbas , publisher ; institute of al-Resala – Beirut ,  al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1403 A.H. – 1983 A.D.

[88] - Ibn Mohin , Yahya ibn Mohin Abu Zakarya , ( died 233 A.H. ) , Tarikh ibn Mohin ( Revayah al-Dori ) , vol. 3 , p. 143 , research by Dr. Ahmad Muhammad Nour Saif , publisher ; center of al-Bahs al-Elmi va Ahya al-Tras al-Islami – Mecca al-Mokaramah – 1399 A.H. – 1979 A.D. , al-Tabaha 1 ;

[89] - Al-Novy al-Shafei , Mohi al-Din Abu Zakarya Yahya ibn Sharaf ibn Mirh ibn Jummah ibn Huzam ( died 676 A.H. ) , Tahzib al-Asma va al-Loghat , vol. 1 , p. 317 , Research : Maktab al-Bohos va al-Derasat , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1996 A.D.

 

[90] - Al-Jazri , Izz al-Din ibn al-Asir Abi al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ( died 630 A.H. ), Asad al-Qabah fi Mahrefah al-sahabah , vol. 4 , p. 109 , research by Adel Ahmad al-Refahi , publisher : Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1996 A.D .

[91] - Al-Suyuti , Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , Tarikh al-kholafa , p. 171 , research by Muhammad Mohi al-Din Abdul Hamid , publisher : Matbaha al-Sahadah – Egypt , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1371 A.H. – 1952 A.D ;

[92] - Al-Zahri , Muhammad ibn Saad ibn Monih Abu Abdullah al-Basri , ( died 230 A.H. ) , al-Tabaghat al-kubra , vol. 2 , p. 339 , publisher ; Dar Sader – Beirut ;

[93] - Ibn Kasir al-Damascene, Abu al-Fada Ismail ibn Umar al-Qurashi , ( died 774 A.H. ), al-Badayah va al-Nahayah , vol. 7 , p. 360 , publisher : Maktabah al-Maharef – Beirut .

[94] - Al-Asghalani al-Shafei , Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl ( died 852 A.H.) , Tahzib al-Tahzib , vol. 7 , p. 296 , publisher : Dar al-Fekr Leltabaha va al-Nashr va al-Tozih – Beirut - Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1404 A.H. – 1984 A.D.

[95] - Al-Suyuti , Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , Tarikh al-kholafa , p. 171 , research by Muhammad Mohi al-Din Abdul Hamid , publisher : Matbaha al-Sahadah – Egypt , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1371 A.H. – 1952 A.D ;

 

[96] - Al-Dinouri , Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Moslim ibn Qutaibah ( died 276 A.H. ) , Tavil Mokhtalef al-Hadith , vol. 1 , p. 162 , Research : Muhammad Zahri al-Najjar , publisher : Dar al-Jil – Beirut – 1393 A.H. – 1972 A.D .

[97] - Al-Nimri al-Qurtabi al-Maleki , Abu Umar Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul Bar ( died 463 A.H. ) , al-Estihab fi Mahrafah al-Ashab , vol. 3 , p. 1103 , Research : Ali Muhammad al-Bedjaoui , publisher ; Dar al-Jil – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1412 A.H.

[98] - Al-Aiji , Azd al-Din (died 756 A.H. ) , al-Mavaghif book , vol. 3 , p. 627 , 636 , research by Abdul Rahman Amira , publisher : Dar al-Jil , Lebanon , Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1 ,  1417 A.H.  , 1997 A.D.

[99] - Al-Taftazani , Saad al-Din Masoud ibn Umar ibn Abdullah ( died 791 A.H. ) , sharh al-Maqased fi Elm al-kalam , vol. 2 , p. 294 , Author name : publisher : Dar al-Nehmanyah – Pakistan , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1401 A.H.  – 1981 A.D.

[100] - Ibn al-Arabi , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Bakr , al-Avasem mena al-Qavasem , vol. 1 , p. 202 , research by Moheb al-Din al-khatib – and Mahmoud Mehdi al-Istanbuli , publisher ; Dar al-Jil – Lebanon – Beirut – 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D. , AL-Tabaha : 2 .

[101] - Al-Novy al-Shafei , Mohi al-Din Abu Zakarya Yahya ibn Sharaf ibn Mirh ibn Jummah ibn Huzam ( died 676 A.H. ) , Tahzib al-Asma va al-Loghat , vol. 1 , p. 317 , Research : Maktab al-Bohos va al-Derasat , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1996 A.D.

 

[102] - Al-Shaibani , Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hanbal ( died 241 A.H.) , Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 65 , publisher ; Institute of Qurtabah – Egypt .

 

[103]   - Al-zahbi al-shafei , Shamsuddin Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Osman , (748 A.H. ) , Tarikh al-Islam va vafyat al-Mashahir va al-Ahlam , vol. 27 , p. 293 , research by Dr. Umar Abdul Salam Tadmouri , publisher : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Lebanon / Beirut , al-tabaha : 1 , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

 

[104] - Al-Haithami , Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hajar ( died 937 A.H. ) , al-savaegh al-Moharaghah Ali Ahl al-Rafaz va al-zelal va al-zandaghah , vol. 2 , p. 441 , research by Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah al-Turkey , kamel Muhammad al-kharrat , publisher ; institute of al-Resala – Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1997 A.D.

[105] - Al-Tabari , Abu Jafar Moheb al-Din Ahmad ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad ( died 694 A.H. ) , Zakhaer al-Aqabi fi Managhib zoy al-Qurba ,  p. 17 , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah al-Mesryah – Egypt ;

 

[106] - Al-Quendozi al-Hanafi , al-Shaykh Soleiman ibn Ibrahim ( died 1294 A.H. ) , Yanabih al-Movaddah Lezavi al-Qurba , vol. 2 , p. 113 , H – 318 and 366 H – 44 , research by Sayed Ali Jamal Ashraf al-Husseini , publisher : Dar al-Osvah Leltabaha va al-Nashr – Qom , al-Tabaha : 1  , 1416  A.H.

 

[107] - Al-Askafi , Muhammad ibn Abdullah Abu Jafar , ( died 220 A.H. ) , al-Mehyar va al-Movazanah in the virtues of al-Imam Ali ibn Abi Talib (AS) , p. 204 , research by al-shaykh Muhammad Baqer al-Mahmoudi , al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1402 A.H. – 1981 A.D .

 

[108] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , p. 47 , part of the second sermon .

 

[109] - Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni al-Mohtazali , Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ( died 655 A.H.) , Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 1 , p. 89 - 90 , research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1418 A.H. 1998 A.D.

 

[110] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh ,  p. 48 , sermon 3 .

[111] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh ,  p. 201 , sermon 144 .

 

[112] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh ,  p. 409 ,  letter 36 .

[113] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh ,  p. 427 , wisdom 22 .

 

[114] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh ,  p. 451 , letter 62 .

[115] - Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni al-Mohtazali , Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ( died 655 A.H.) , Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 17 , p. 87 , research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1418 A.H. 1998 A.D.

[116] - Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni al-Mohtazali , Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ( died 655 A.H.) , Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 6 , p. 95 , vol. 17 , p. 151 , research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1418 A.H. 1998 A.D.

[117] - Al-Dinouri , Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Moslim ibn Qutaibah ( died 276 A.H. ) , al-Imama va al-Syasah , vol. 1 , p. 126 , Research : khalil al-Mansour , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1418 A.H. – 1997 A.D .

 

[118] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh ,  p. 451 , letter 62 .

[119] - Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni al-Mohtazali , Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ( died 655 A.H.) , Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 17 , p. 86 , research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1418 A.H. 1998 A.D.

[120] - Al-Dinouri , Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Moslim ibn Qutaibah ( died 276 A.H. ) , al-Imama va al-Syasah , vol. 1 , p. 126 , Research : khalil al-Mansour , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1418 A.H. – 1997 A.D .

 

[121] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died  256 A.H. ) , Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 2 , p. 707 , H – 1906 , ketab (37) Salah al-Taravij Bab Fazl mena Qam Ramadan , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha , publisher : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamamah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 3  , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

[122] - Al-Asghalani al-Shafei , Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl ( died 852 A.H. ) , Talkhis al-Jubeir fi Ahadith al-Rafehi al-kabir , vol. 2 , p. 24 , research by al-Sayed Abdullah Hashem al-Yamani al-Madani , publuisher : Medina al-Monavarah – 1384 A.H. – 1964 A.D.

[123] - Al-Moghaddasi al-Hanbali , Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Qedamah ( died 620 A.H. ) , al-Moqanni fi Feqh al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaibani , vol. 1 , p. 455 and 456 , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr – Beirut , al-Tabaha: 1  , 1405 A.H .

[124] - Al-Novy al-Shafei , Mohi al-Din Abu Zakarya Yahya ibn Sharaf ibn Mirh ibn Jummah ibn Huzam ( died 676 A.H. ) , Sharh al-Novy Ali Sahih Moslim , vol. 6 , p. 155 , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 2  , 1392 A.H.

[125] - Al-Suyuti , Jalal al-Din Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , Sharh Sunnan al-Nisayy , vol. 3 , p. 189 , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – Lebanon .

[126] - Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi (died 261 A.H.), Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 592 , al-Jummah book , bab Takhfif al-Salah va al-khotbah , Research : Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

[127] - Al-Nisayy , Abu Abdul Rahman Ahmad ibn Shoaib ibn Ali ( DIED 303 A.H. ) , al-Sunnan al-kubra , vol. 3 , p. 449 , Research : Abdul Qafar Soleiman al-Bandari , Sayed kasrawi Hassan , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1  , 1411 A.H. – 1991 A.D ;

[128] - Ibn Kasir al-Damascene, Ismail ibn Umar Abu al-Fada al-Qurashi , ( died 774 A.H. ) , Tafsir al-Quran al-Azim , vol. 1 , p. 557 , Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1401 A.H ;

 

[129] - Al-Suyuti , Jalal al-Din Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , al-Dur al-Mansor , vol. 3 , p. 612 , publisher : Dar al-Fekr – Beirut – 1993 A.D.

[130] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died  256 A.H. ) , Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 4 , p. 1642 , ketab al-Tafsir , Bab God Almighty states : “ O you who believe! Do not forbid yourselves the good things which Allah has made lawful for you and do not exceed the limits “ ( Maidah sourah , v 87 ) , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha , publisher : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamamah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 3  , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

[131] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died  256 A.H. ) , Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 5 , p. 158 , ketab al-Tafsir , Bab it is the enjoyment of Umrah to al-Hajj , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr Leltabaha va al-Nashr va al-Tozih ; Beirut ; description : Tabaha Beofast ana Tabaha Dar al-Tabaha al-Amerah Istanbul , 1401 A.H. – 1981 A.D.

 

[132] - Al-Asghalani al-Shafei , Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajar Abulfazl ( died 852 A.H.  ), Fatah al-Bari sharh sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 3 , p. 433 , Research : Moheb al-Din al-khatib , publisher : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut ,

[133] - Al-Aini al-Ghitabi al-Hanafi , Badr al-Din Abu Muhammad Mahmoud ibn Ahmad ( died 855 A.H. ) , Omdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 9 , p. 205 , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

[134] - Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi (died 261 A.H.), Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 900 , al-Hajj book , bab Javaz al-Tamattuh , Research : Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

 

[135] - Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi (died 261 A.H.), Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 855 , al-Hajj book , bab fi al-Mataha al-Hajj va al-Umrah , Research : Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

[136] - Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi (died 261 A.H.), Sahih Moslim , vol. 2 , p. 1023 , al-Nekah book , bab Nekah al-Mataha va Bayan Ennaho Aiih somma Nasikh somma Aiih somma Nasikh va Astaghara Tahrima ela Youm al-Qiamah , Research : Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

 

[137] - Al-Sarakhsi al-Hanafi , Shamsuddin Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Abi Sahl ( died 483 A.H. ) , al-Mabsout , vol. 4 , p. 27 , publisher ; Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut .

[138] - Al-Moghaddasi al-Hanbali , Abu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Qedamah ( died 620 A.H. ) , al-Moqanni fi Feqh al-Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal al-Shaibani , vol. 7 , p. 136 , publisher ; Dar al-Fekr – Beirut , al-Tabaha: 1  , 1405 A.H .

[139] Ibn Hazm al-Andulasi al-zaheri , Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Saiid ( died 456 A.H. ) , al-Mahali , vol. 7 , p. 107 , Research by Lejanah Ehya al-Tras al-Arabi , publisher : Dar al-Afagh al-Jadidah – Beirut .

 

[140] - Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein al-Qushairi (died 261 A.H.), Sahih Moslim , vol. 3 , p. 1378 , al-Jahad va al-sayyer book , bab Hokm al-Fayye , Research : Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

[141] - Al-Suyuti , Abdul Rahman ibn Abi Bakr ( died 911 A.H. ) , Tarikh al-kholafa , p. 73 , research by Muhammad Mohi al-Din Abdul Hamid , publisher : Matbaha al-Sahadah – Egypt , al-Tabaha : 1   , 1371 A.H. – 1952 A.D ;

[142] - Al-Haithami , Abu al-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Hajar ( died 937 A.H. ) , al-savaegh al-Moharaghah Ali Ahl al-Rafaz va al-zelal va al-zandaghah , vol. 1 , p. 93 , research by Abdul Rahman ibn Abdullah al-Turkey , kamel Muhammad al-kharrat , publisher ; institute of al-Resala – Lebanon , al-Tabaha : 1 , 1417 A.H. – 1997 A.D.

 

[143] - Al-Mottaqi Al-Hendi , Ala al-Din Ali ibn Hesam al-Din Al-Hendi al-Borhan Fouri ( died 975 A.H. ) , kanz al-Ahmal fi sunnan al-Aghval va al-Afhal , vol. 12 , p. 488 , No. 35600 , research and record and interpretation by al-shaykh Bakri Hayani , correct and indexing : al-shaykh sefva al-saqa , publisher : Dar al-Resala – Beirut , Lebanon , 1409 A.H. – 1988 A.D .

[144] - Al-Aiji , Azd al-Din Abdul Rahman ibn Ahmad al-Aiji , al-Mavaghif book , vol. 3 , p. 598 , research by Abdul Rahman Amira , publisher : Dar al-Jil , Lebanon , Beirut , al-Tabaha : 1 ,  1417 A.H.  , 1997 A.D.

[145] - Al-Razi al-Shafei , Fakhr al-Din Muhammad ibn Umar al-Tamimi ( died 604 A.H. ) , al-Mahsoul fi Elm usool al-Feqh , vol. 3 , p. 87 , vol. 4 , p. 369 , research by Dr. Taha Jaber Fayaz , publisher : Dar al-Resala – Beirut , al-Tabaha : 2 , 1412 A.H.

[146] - Al-Ghazali , Muhammad ibn Muhammad Abu Hamed ( died 505 A.H. ) , al-Mostasfi fi Elm al-Usool , vol. 1 , p. 228 , research by Muhammad Abdul salam Abdul Shafii , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut – 1413 A.H. , al-Tabaha ; 1 ;

[147] - Al-Amidi , Abu al-Hassan Ali ibn Muhammad ( died 631 A.H. ) , al-Ahkam fi usool al-Ahkam , vol. 2 , p. 77 , 224 , 254 , 348 , and vol. 3 , p. 55 , Research : Dr. Sayed al-Jamili , publisher : Dar al-ketab al-Arabi – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 1   , 1404 A.H.

[148] - Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Madaeni al-Mohtazali , Abu Hamed Izz al-Din ibn Hobullah ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad ( died 655 A.H.) , Sharh Nahjol – Balaghah , vol. 16 , p. 153 , research by Muhammad Abdul karim al-Nimri , publisher ; Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut / Lebanon , al-Tabaha ; 1 , 1418 A.H. 1998 A.D.

 

[149] - Al-Johari , Ahmad ibn Abdul Aziz al-Johari al-Basri al-Baghdadi Abu Bakr ( died 323 A.H. ) , al-saqifah va Fadak , p. 101 and 145 , research : And the collection and investigation : Dr. al-Shaykh Muhammad Hadi al-Amini , publisher : sherkat al-katbi Leltabaha va al-Nashr Beirut – Lebanon , al-Tabaha ; 2  , 1413 A.H. – 1993 A.D.

[150] - Ibn Tayfur, Ahmad ibn Abi Taher ibn Tayfur Abulfazl ( died 280 A.H. ) , Balaghat al-Nisa , p. 6 .

[151] - Al-Shaibani , Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Hanbal ( died 241 A.H.) , Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal , vol. 1 , p. 4 , publisher ; Institute of Qurtabah – Egypt .

[152] - Al-Halabi , Ali ibn Borhan al-Din ( died 1044 A.H. ) , al-sirah al-Halabia fi sirah al-Amin al-Mamoon , vol. 3 , p. 488 , publisher : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut – 1400 A.H.

 

[153] - Al-Shafei , Muhammad ibn Idris Abu Abdullah ( died 204 A.H. ) , al-Umm , vol. 1 , p. 235 , publisher : Dar al-Mahrefah – Beirut , al-Tabaha; 2 , 1393 A.H.

[154] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died  256 A.H. ) , Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 1 , p. 198 , ketab Mavaghit Salah , Bab 6 : bab Tazhiih alsalah ana vaqteha , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha , publisher : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamamah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 3  , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

[155] - Ibn Abdul Barr , Yusuf ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn Abdul Barr al-Nimri ( died 463 A.H. ) , Jameh Bayan al-Elm va Fazlah , vol. 2 , p. 200 , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut 1398 A.H.

 

[156] - Al-Nishaburi al-Qushairi Moslim ibn al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hussein (died 261 A.H.), Sahih Moslim , vol. 1 , p. 295 , al-salah book , bab Esbat al-Takbir , Research : Muhammad Fouad Abdul Baqi , publisher ; Dar Ahya al-Tras al-Arabi – Beirut .

 

[157] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died  256 A.H. ) , Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 1 , p. 271 , book seffah al-Salah , chapter إِتْمَامِ التَّكْبِيرِ في الرُّكُوع , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha , publisher : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamamah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 3  , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

 

[158] - Al-Bukhari al-Jafi , Muhammad ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah ( died  256 A.H. ) , Sahih al-Bukhari , vol. 1 , p. 272 , book seffah al-Salah , chapter إتمام التكبير في السجود , research by Dr. Mustafa Dib al-Bagha , publisher : Dar Ibn kasir , al-Yamamah – Beirut , al-Tabaha ; 3  , 1407 A.H. – 1987 A.D .

 

[159] - Al-Yaqoubi , Ahmad ibn Abi Yaqoub ibn Jafar ibn Wahab ibn Vazeh ( died 292 A.H. ) , Tarikh al-Yaqoubi , vol. 2 , p. 162 , publisher : Dar sader – Beirut .

 

[160] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , vol. 1 , p. 136 , sermon 92 .

 

[161] - Al-Mottaqi Al-Hendi , Ala al-Din Ali ibn Hesam al-Din Al-Hendi al-Borhan Fouri ( died 975 A.H. ) , kanz al-Ahmal fi sunnan al-Aghval va al-Afhal , vol. 5 , p. 297 , No. 14281 , research by Mahmoud Umar al-Domiati , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut , Lebanon , 1419 A.H. – 1998 A.D , al-Tabaha ; 1 .

 

[162] - Al-Tabari , Abi Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir ( died 310 A.H.) , Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 697 , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut .

 

[163] - Al-Buladhiri , Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Jaber ( died 279 A.H. ), Ansab al-Ashraf , vol. 1 , p. 302 , according to al-Jameh al-kabir .

 

[164] - Al-Tabari , Abi Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir ( died 310 A.H.) , Tarikh al-Tabari , vol. 2 , p. 696 , publisher : Dar al-kotob al-Elmyah – Beirut .

 

[165] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , vol. 1 , p. 136 , sermon 92 .

 

[166] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , vol. 1 , p. 136 , sermon 92 .

 

[167] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , p. 57 , sermon 16 .

[168] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , p. 57 , sermon 16 .

 

[169] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , p. 195 , sermon 137 .

 

[170] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , p. 351 , sermon 229 .

 

[171] - Nahjol – Balaghah Subhi Saleh , p. 445 , sermon 54 .

 



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