Friday 24 November 2017
Main books of shiite rijal science:
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Main books of shiite rijal science:

 Main books of shiite rijal science:

Rijal science is: the science that talks about conditions that we accept the narrator`s speechs under thoese conditions.

in the other words: Rijal science is divided into two parts.

One of them: Apparent recognition. means: name, nickname, etc.

Another: inner recognition. means: Inherent descriptions like:

The credibility or eulogy of narrators or lack of it.

Introducing the main sources of shiits rijal:

The standard of valuing of hadith narraters and Discovering their credit rating is One of the measure of validation tools of hadith in shiit sources.

Therefore, the Shiite scholars are paying attention to Behavior and Speech of hadiths narraters And counted it one of the necessary preconditions for finding authentic narratives.

Valid books _in rijal science_  are mainly some of the old and original compilation.

1.  Rijal_al_kash’shi: Abu amr muhammad bin umar bin abdul_aziz(The author of this book)

He is One of the most reliable and prestigious scholars of Imamiyah that he had full awareness about hadith and rijal.

 Although he narrated from zaeef[1] narrators of the hadith. _Najashi restate it_ And his book contained many mistakes.

But he had a healthy and religious thought away from the inclination and deviation.

His book was named: “ikhtyar_ma`refat_al_rijal” known as: “Rijal Al_kash`shi” Which contains a lot of scientific information about recognition of narrators and their credit degree and historical conditions in time of imams and narrators age.

This book has two main features:

A.  Kash’shi in this book _In addition to the affirmation of credibility of some of the narrators_ has mentined Various narration and information about their specifications. So Has been provided a better foundation for recognizing of narrators credit.

B. The author arranged in his book the age of the Messenger of Allah (PBUH), from the time of Imam Hasan Askari, in six Tabaqah[2] And mentioned the specifications of the narrators from each tabaqah.

2. Rijal_al_najashi: ahmad bin ali bin ahmad bin abbas the auther of Rijal najashi book. The author of Rijal Najashi book is one of the most well-known and skillful Rejalians in Rijal science. He is a scholar of the fifth century AH.

The name al-Najashi comes from his ancestor, 'Abd Allah, who governed over Ahwaz and was famous as al-Najash.

Ahmad bin ali najashi was One of the most distinguished students of Sheikh Mofid, “muhammad bin muhammad bin numan”.

He was a contemporary with two famous and excellent students of Sheikh Mofid, means: “Seyyed Morteza” and “Sheikh Toosi”. Rijal Najashi is considered as one of the most important compilation of Rijāl science by Shiite scholars.

the author of this book mentioned 1269 total titles, both the name and nickname. some of them in great detail and other, briefly.

In many cases, he refered to the books that The name of those books displays their content.

The author’s focus _in this book_ is on Providing a strong and (partly) comprehensive source about compilations of hadith narrators. With Introducing the owners of books and offering The tariq to them. 

Some of the features of Rijal Najashi

A.  This book has been assigned to writers of Shiit’s usool[3].

 The book is written as response to the insults and Ignorant humiliations of  Opponents of the Shiite religion and raised the place of Muhaddesin[4] and narrators of Shi 'a By collecting the list of their books.

And registered the name of many of the compilations and the usool owners, Exposing to the public, especially to Shia’s Opponents.

Rijal najashi is more strong, perfect and capable than other rijal compilations

Due to the dominance over the rijal science, compilations of narrators, Muhaddesin and the book owners. So in comparison with other Rijal books has a special feature.

C: Najashi was older than Sheikh Toosi, But He paid close attention to two books of Sheikh: “Alfehrest and rijal” for writing and setting the book of Rijal, he got benefit  from information in those two books, especially “al’fehrest”.

Hence, this book is in a better position than other books due to scientific richness.

D: there were strong scholars in rijal science at the Najashi age, like: “Ahmad bin muhammad bin marvan Aljundi” and “Ahmad bin Ali bin nooh Alsirafi” and “Alhussain bin ubaidullah Alqazaeri” And “Abu Alfaraj muhammad bin ali bin jacob bin isaac Alkatib” known az: “ibn nadim” As the privileged professors and masters of  Mr. Najashi _that they transmitted the legacy of the rijal science from the past to that time_ helped najashi and empowered him in his ejtihadat (sum of ijtihad[5])

E: The author mentioned tousiq[6] of some of the owners of the book in the biographies of other book and asl[7] owners. Whether or not a Biography has been mentioned for reliable person like: shahab bin abd_e_rabbih, amr bin minhal alqeisy, muhammad bin hamam bin suhail iskafi, hassan bin ulvan alkalbi and some others.

3. sheikh toosi`s Alfehrest:

The auther of this book is “Sheikh al’taefah” muhammad bin hassan toosi. In This book _that is one of the sources of Rijal Najashi_ has been mentioned

A list of Shiite narrators who have the asl or the book and compilation.

Sheikh named 912 hadith narrators who narrate from imams (peace be upon them), most of them with principles(asl), books or compilations.

Some others have no compilations, but only some narrations have been  remained of them and Sheikh mentioned his Sanad[8] and tariq[9] to those usool[10] and compilations and narrations.

The Features of Fehrest Book:

1.    All The owners of the Usool or books that have been mentioned by Sheikh Toosi in this book, are Shiites. Some of them are “isna ashari”[11] and another group are other Shiite sects, like zeidiah[12], fatahiah[13],

Kisaniah[14], waqefiah[15].

2.    In this book, Sheikh Toosi mentioned his own tariq[16] to usool, books, compilation, Masaeel[17] and hadiths of narrators.

3.  Sheikh toosi mentioned in “tahzib al,usool” the narrations of books and “usool” that didn`t mention his “tariq” to them,

Not in the text of the book, nor in the end of the book in “mashikhah”[18]

But he mentioned his “tariq” in “Fehrest” book.

So those hadiths don`t have “ir,sal”[19]  but are considered “mus,nad”[20]

The other and most important benefit of this action is that: Sometimes the mentioned “Tariq” in “Tahzib” was Zaeef[21] and untrue, But in “Fehrest” book is qavi[22] or sahih[23]. this point causes that weakness(zaaf) of narrative in sanad is being resolved. Also causes Validation and Acceptance of hadith and causes that hadith will be In the ranks of evidence of Ahkam(Adellah al’ahkam).

4.  Rijal toosi:

In this book, sheikh toosi mentioned the names of the Companions of the Prophet And eleven Imams (pbuth) after him and sort them by time, From commander of the faithfull(Amir_al_moumenin) to imam hassan Askari(pbuh).

Sheihk_ is understood from the introduction of this book_ emphasized that narrators should be Muslim to bring them in this book, without attending to religious tendency for choosing a narrator.

then mentioned all their sub-collections If their name was access, whether they are believers, punk, imami, sunni, etc.

For example sheikh mentioned The third caliphs, “Muawiyah bin abi sufyan” and “amr ibn_e_ aas” in the Companions of the Prophet.

Also “ubaidullah bin ziyad” and his father “ziyad bin abih” in companions of Amir_al_muemenin and “mansoor dawaniqi” in companions of imam sadiq (pbuh).

Therefore, bringing the narrator 's name in this book, doesn’t mean that he is an Imami person. Of course, maybe we can say that, according to the introduction that Sheikh Toosi mentioned in the beginning of this book.

The first principle about the people who have been mentioned in this book is: Imamiyah or at least Shia .

 

so being a narrator sunni, should be proved by evidence and other obvious reasons.

5.  Rijal al_barghi

Among Rijal scholars, it is known that this book belongs to “Ahmad ibn Muhammad bin Khalid al-Barqi”. Some know this book as compiled by his father, “Mohammed bin Khalid Al’barghi” And Someone else 's opinion: The author of the book is the son of Ahmad Barghi, “Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad bin Khalid barghi”, or his grandson, “Ahmad ibn Abdullah ibn Ahmad braghi”.

In any case, the comopilation method of this book is like Rijal Toosi.

In this book, narrators’s name has been collected from companions of the Prophet (s) of Allah (PBUH & HP) to the companions of Imam Hassan Askari (peace be upon him), respectively.

Sheikh Toosi, referred to only a book, entitled: “Tabaqat Al-Rijal”_ About Rijal Science_When mentioned the compilations of “Ahmad ibn Muhammad bin Khalid barghi", But Mr. Najashi _when wrote ahmad`s biography and named his books_ refers to two books, titled: "Tabaqat book" and "Rijal Book".The exist book from barghi, mostly matches with first title, means “Tabaqat book”. At the end of “rijal barghi” is created a section, titled: “Names of the deniers on Abu Bakr”. And has been mentioned names of twelve companions of the Prophet, PBUH, six from “Muhajerin[24]” and six from  “Ansar[25]”.

6.  Abu qalib zurary treatise:

The author of this book is “Abu Ghalib Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad Zurari” the descendants of “Bukair bin Aa’yin”. He was born in 285 and died in 368 A.H. He wrote this collection for his grandson, Muhammad b. Abdullah ibn Abi Qalib Zarari.

In this compilation, Abu Ghalib _after addressing his affiliation and quoting a biography and a history of their lives And preaching to his grandson_ refers to the Toroq(sum of tariq[26]) of the book owners and the usool(sum of Asl[27]). This compilation is one of the main sources and valid compilation of Shi 'a Rijal.

7.  mashikhah[28] of Sadoogh:

The author of this book is “Mohammed bin Ali ibn al-Hussein ibn Musa bin Babuyah Qomi”, known as “Sheikh Sadooq”. Who was born in 306 AH with the prayers of Imam Mahdi Aj

 and died in 381 AH.

He quotes the narrations in “Man la yahzuruhu al’faqih[29]” book without full sanad and only refers to one or more narrators of last of “sanad”, Unlike Sheikh Kulleini, in the kafi book. Because he mentioned narratives mostly with full sanad[30], Except a few of them.

Sheikh sadooq mentioned his tariqs to those narrations in mashikhah _a part at the end of the book_ So access to sanad of “Alfaqih” narrations Obtained  after reference to mashikhah of this book.

8. mashikhah of sheikh toosi is in two books: Tahzib and Estebsar

Sheikh Toosi, began the sanad of  narratives in these two books, with the names of the owners of the asl and tasnif[31] and because of long time between them, he mentioned his tariq to them in mashikhah that has published in the last of those two books, means: Tahzib and Estebsar.

9. Rijal ibn qazaeri:

The name of this book is known as "Rijal ibn qazaeri" among the Rijal scholars. so Who is the author of this book? There is a difference between scholars of Rijal science,unlike Rijal Najashi and Sheikh Toosi, Whom the author is certain,

The jurisprudent and contemporary rijali, Ayatollah Sobhani believes that the author of this book is “Ahmad ibn Hussain ibn ubaidullah qazaeri” the son of “Hussain ibn ubaidullah qazaeri” - the professor of, Mr. Najashi -

According to the search and investigation that this jurisprudent has done, for understanding the Rijal ibn qazairi we must understand The book of Ahmad bin Tavoos called: "Hal`lul ishkal" means: solving the problems.

He collected five main books of Rijal: Rijal Najashi, Rijal Tusi, Sheikh Toosi 's fehrest, Rijal Kash’shi and Al-zuafa _Which is attributed to Ibn al-qazaeri_ in one place.

The sect of “al-zu 'afa”[32] is written by two of his famous students,” Allameh Helli” and “Ibn Dawud”, in two books: “khulasah al-aQwal” and “Rijal ibn-dawud”. In recent centuries, this book has been revived by Sheikh Mola Enayatullah quhpayee. he brought "Hal`lul ishkal" book in “Majma’ul`Rijal” as part of this book.

The difference between the “Rijal” and “Fehrest” books:

The purpose of the compilation of Rijal books is to express the Tabaqah[33] of the companions of the Imams (as) But the main purpose of writing the Fehrest books is to mention the usool books and the compilations and the names of their authors.



[1] When one or more narrators are rejected in the Tariq

[2]  The narrator 's position in the Sanad

 

[3] .(“usool” is sum of “asl”. And “asl” is a book that Has been gathered only the hadiths in it)

[4] A person who narrates from prophet or imams.

[5] The ability to use specific methods to extract the subjects.

 

[6] trust and confidence in promise and action of the narrators

 

[7] is a book that Has been gathered only hadiths in it.

 

[8] Includes at least one ring of narrators for Expression of a person 's book

[9] A number of narrators that have been narrated their books by sheikh toosi

[10] sum of asl And “asl” is a book that Has been gathered only hadiths in it

 

[11] a sect of shia who believe in 12 imams

[12] bilieve in zeid bin ali bin alhussain_pbuh_ imamate. So they believe in 4 imams

[13] who bilieve in 12 imams also believe in “abdullah bin jaafar al_aftah” imamate after his father imam sadiq _pbuh_. So they believe in 13 imams

[14] who bilieve in muhammad alhanafiah imamate after imam hussain pbuh

[15] who believe in 7 imams. So they bilieve that imam kazim _pbuh_ didn`t die and he is Al_qaem means: “MAHDI”

[16] A group of narrators that have been narrated their books by sheikh toosi

[17] Collection of Asked Questions

[18] The place of reference of the sheikhs(Scientific scholars of Hadith)

 and professors who have cited their ways

[19] The narrator can`t narrate from next narrator Whether due to lack of understanding of time or lack of understanding of his place

[20] when all narrators are exsist in sanad

[21] When one or more narrators are rejected in the Tariq

 

[22] an hadith that its narrators are imami and mamdouh or praised

[23] an hadith that its narrators are imami and confidence

[24] Muslims who were under the pressure of pagans so immigrated to Medina.

 

[25] They were from Medina, who placed Mecca Muslims in their homes.

 

[26]  A number of narrators that Abu qalib has narrated their books

 

[27] a book that Has been gathered only hadiths in it.

[28] The place of reference of the sheikhs(Scientific scholars of Hadith)

 and professors who have cited their ways.

 

[29] Someone who does not have the jurisprudence

 

[30] [30] Includes at least one ring of narrators for Expression of a person 's book

 

[31] is a book that Has been gathered hadiths and auther writing in it

[32] Means: weakness narrators.

[33] The narrator 's position in the Sanad



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