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Why did not Imam Ali (peace be upon him), make a law to annihilate the heresies of the caliphs.
ID: 98 Publish Date: 18 January 2016 - 16:04 Count Views: 138
Question & Answer » Imam Ali
Why did not Imam Ali (peace be upon him), make a law to annihilate the heresies of the caliphs.

The question asker: Ali Esfandi

Answer:

To answer this question we can say, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) stood against the heresies, and did it based on logics. This act was considerably carried out in different steps, and Imam introduced the book of God and the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) as origin:

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) didn’t consider the practice of the SHeykhain legitimate.

The rejection of the practice of Abu-Bakrand Omar by the six member council

In the issue of the six member council (Showra), Imam Ali was suggested to act upon the practices of his predecessors, however Imam decisively rejects it and states the book of God and the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) are his only criteria, and by these two there will be no need to attach to any other practice:

«وخلا (عبد الرحمن بن عوف) بعلي بن أبي طالب ، فقال : لنا اللّه عليك ، إن وليّت هذا الأمر ، أن تسير فينا بكتاب اللّه وسنّة نبيّه وسيرة أبي بكر وعمر. فقال : أسير فيكم بكتاب اللّه وسنّة نبيّه ما استطعت.

فخلا بعثمان فقال له : لنا اللّه عليك ، إن وليّت هذا الأمر ، أن تسير فينا بكتاب اللّه وسنّة نبيّه وسيرة أبي بكر وعمر . فقال : لكم أن أسير فيكم بكتاب اللّه وسنة نبيه وسيرة أبي بكر وعمر.

ثمّ خلا بعلي، فقال له مثل مقالته الأولى ، فأجابه مثل الجواب الأوّل ، ثمّ خلا بعثمان، فقال له مثل المقالة الأولى ، فأجابه مثل ما كان أجابه ، ثمّ خلا بعلي فقال له مثل المقالة الأولى ، فقال : إنّ كتاب اللّه وسنّة نبيه لا يحتاج معهما إلى إجيرى أحد.

أنت مجتهد أن تزوي هذا الأمر عنّي . فخلا بعثمان فأعاد عليه القول ، فأجابه بذلك الجواب ، وصفق على يده .

Tarikh Al- Yaghoubi, vol 2, p 162 refer to the book : Sharh Nahjol Balaghah Ibn Abi Al- Hadid vol 1, p 188, vol 9, p 53, vol 10, p 245, vol 12, p 263, Al-Fosoul fil Osoul az Jassas, vol 4, p 55, Asad Al- Ghabat, vol 4, p 32, Al- Saqifat val Fadak Johari p 86, Tarikh Al- Madinat , Ibn Shobat Al- Nomeiri, vol 3, p 930, Tarikh Al- Tabari, vol 3, p 297, Tarikh Ibn Khaldoun, Q 1, Ibn Khaldoun vol 2, p 126, val Shafi fi Al- Imamat, vol 3, p 209

 

"Abdol Rahman Ibn Owf talked to Imam in private then he said: by Allah tell me if you will follow the book of the almighty, the practice of His messenger (peace be upon him), and the practice of Abu-Bakr and Omar; then Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said: I will follow the book of the almighty and His messenger (peace be upon him).

So he talked to Othman in private as well and said the same thing he had told to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and he answered: " I guarantee I will follow the book of the almighty, the practice of His messenger (peace be upon him), and the practice of Abu-Bakr and Omar.

Once again he proposed to Imam Ali and said the same thing he had already told, however, Imam gave him the same answer he had given before and then remarked " I won’t need the impression of any other one as long as the book of God and the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) exist. You are striving to get the office of caliphate away from me (otherwise you wouldn’t lay down the condition of following the practice of Abu-Bakr and Othman).

Then he went to Othman and told the same things, anf Othman gave him the same respond eventually he came to allegiance with Othman."

The interesting point is that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) tells Abdolr Rahman, "you , by this proposal, are trying to get the office of caliphate away from me, since you already know that I don’t approve of the practice of  Sheykhein ( Abu-Bakr and Othman).

«أنت مجتهد أن تزوي هذا الأمر عنّي. (You are trying to get this office away from me)

Aaes Ibn Wael says: I told Abdol Rahman: "why did  you come to allegiance with a personality like Othman while imam Ali (peace be upon him) was present. He replied, " it is not my fault for I proposed Ali (peace be upon him) to follow the book of Allah, the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), and the practice of Abu-Bakr and Omar, he didn’t agree, however Othman accepted."

«عن عاصم عن أبى وائل قال قلت لعبد الرحمن بن عوف كيف بايعتم عثمان وتركتم عليا رضى اللّه عنه قال ما ذنبي قد بدأت بعلي فقلت أبايعك على كتاب اللّه وسنة رسوله وسيرة أبي بكر وعمر رضى اللّه عنهما قال فقال فيما استطعت قال ثم عرضتها على عثمان رضى اللّه عنه فقبلها .

Mosnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, vol 1, p 75, Fathol Bari, vol 13, p 170

 

Rejection of the practice of Abu-Bakr and Omar in the adventure of Khavrij (the Khrijites)

Remarks like this in the adventure of kharejites and at the time of the caliphate have been quoted by Imam Ali (peace be upon him).

ولما خرجت الخوارج من الكوفة أتى عليا أصحابه وشيعته فبايعوه وقالوا نحن أولياء من واليت وأعداء من عاديت فشرط لهم فيه سنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فجاءه ربيعة بن أبى شداد الخثعمي وكان شهد معه الجمل وصفين ومعه راية خثعم.

فقال له: «بايع على كتاب الله وسنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم» فقال ربيعة: «على سنة أبى بكر وعمر .

قال له علي: «ويلك لو أن أبا بكر وعمر عملا بغير كتاب الله وسنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم لم يكونا على شئ من الحق .

فبايعه، فنظر إليه على وقال أما والله لكأنى بك وقد نفرت مع هذه الخوارج فقتلت وكأني بك وقد وطئتك الخيل بحوافرها فقتل يوم النهر مع خوارج البصرة.

Tarikh Al- Tabari: 4/56

 

" When Kharejites rebelled against Imam Ali (peace be upon him), Imam went to his companions and supporters, for another time they gave their loyalty hands to Imam and told him, " we befriend those who are a friend of yours and feel hostile toward the ones who are the enemy of yours, so Imam agreed to act upon the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him); then Rabiat ibn abi Shadad Khathami who had accompanied Imam in the battles of Seffein and Jamal and held the flag of the tribe of Khatham went over to Imam Ali (peace be upon him), come to allegiance with  me with the conditions of following the book of Allah and the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him); but Rabia said " under the condition of following the practice of Abu-Bakr and Othman .

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) told him, "shame on you, if Abu-Bakr and Omar hadn’t  acted upon the book of Allah and the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), they wouldn’t have been legitimate for a moment."

So he came to allegiance with Imam Ali (peace be upon him) then Imam looked at him and told him, "by God I can see you joining the Kharejites to fight against me and you will die, I can see you the horseshoes trampling on you. Then he was murdered in battle of Nahrewan accompanied by other kharejites."

But here are the steps taken by Imam Ali (peace be upon him) for revealing the heresies:

The first step: standing against the small heresies and the beginning of nation 's opposition:

This issue is mentioned in both Shiite and Sunnite references that Imam at first wanted to test people to see whether their faith is strong enough to bare removal of great heresies, that’s why initially he started his combat regarding the prayers of Tarawij which was one of the small heresies laid down by Omar:

وقد روى : أن عمر خرج في شهر رمضان ليلا فرأى المصابيح في المسجد ، فقال : ما هذا ؟ فقيل له : إن الناس قد اجتمعوا لصلاة التطوع ، فقال : بدعة فنعمت البدعة ! فاعترف كما ترى بأنها بدعة ، وقد شهد الرسول صلى الله عليه وآله أن كل بدعة ضلالة . وقد روى أن أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام لما اجتمعوا إليه بالكوفة فسألوه أن ينصب لهم إماما يصلى بهم نافلة شهر رمضان ، زجرهم وعرفهم أن ذلك خلاف السنة فتركوه واجتمعوا لأنفسهم وقدموا بعضهم فبعث إليهم ابنه الحسن عليه السلام فدخل عليهم المسجد ومعه الدرة فلما رأوه تبادروا الأبواب وصاحوا وا عمراه !

شرح نهج البلاغة ابن أبي الحديد از علماي اهل سنت ج 12ص 283

There is a tradition saying, "Omar at a Ramadan night go out of his house and saw the lights of the mosque he said what were the lights for, he was said,  people had got together for Mostahab(recommended) prayers[ to perform it in congregational form]then he said, "it is an innovation but a good one!"

So he has made a confession on its being a heresy, and the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) has testified that any form of heresy is a mean of deviation,

And it is quoted from imam Ali (peace be upon him) that when people referred to Imam and asked him to assign a prayer leader to say the Mustahab prayers of the month of Ramadan, but Imam banned them from it and informed them that this act was against the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), then they left Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and chose someone among themselves [ to be the leader of congregational prayers], Imam sent Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) to them. Holding a whip in his hands, Imam got to the mosque when people saw him ran away and shouted "wow the practice of Omar is gone!"

Pay attention to this tradition this time narrated in Shiite references:

وباسناده عن علي بن الحسن بن علي بن فضال ، عن أحمد بن الحسن ، عن عمرو ابن سعيد ( المدايني ) ، عن مصدق بن صدقة ، عن عمار ، عن أبي عبد الله عليه السلام قال : سألته عن الصلاة في رمضان في المساجد فقال : لما قدم أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الكوفة أمر الحسن بن علي أن ينادي في الناس : لا صلاة في شهر رمضان في المساجد جماعة فنادى في الناس الحسن بن علي بما أمره به أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام فلما سمع الناس مقالة الحسن بن علي عليه السلام صاحوا : وا عمراه وا عمراه ، فلما رجع الحسن إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام قال له : ما هذا الصوت ؟ قال : يا أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام الناس يصيحون : وا عمراه وا عمراه فقال أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام : قل لهم صلوا .

Vasael Al- Shiiah (Al- Islamiyah), the late Hore Ammeli A Shiite scholar, vol 5, p 192, tradition no 2

 

"when Imam Ali (peace be upon him) came to Kufa, Imam ordered imam Hassan (peace be upon him) to inform people not say congregational prayers [of Tarawij] during the nights of the holy month of Ramadan , so Imam Hassan (peace be upon him) stated what he was told by his father(peace be upon him), when people heard him, cried out " oh, Omar oh, Omar"( since the prayers of tarawij was of the heresy laid down by Omar), when Imam came back to his father, Imam asked what was that voice, imam Hassan (peace be upon him) answered, " oh Amir Al-Momenin people are shouting oh, Omar oh, Omar". Therefore Imam Ali (peace be upon him) told him "go back to them and

Say your prayers (you like Omar more than the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) and you do not seek for the real practice!).

The second step: numerating the heresies

When Amir al-Momenin Imam Ali (peace be upon him) figured out that people do not want to put aside even the small heresies laid down by his predecessors and act upon the practice of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) altered the techniques of his combat, and started letting people know about the field of heresies.

The tradition on Nahjol Balaqe: the practices of the caliphs were the practice of dynasty of Pharaoh!!!

Amir al-Momenin Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in an important tradition has talked about this problems and considers the practice of the caliphs like the practice of the dynasty of pharaoh:

حَتَّى إِذَا قَبَضَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ ص رَجَعَ قَوْمٌ عَلَى الْأَعْقَابِ وَ غَالَتْهُمُ السُّبُلُ وَ اتَّكَلُوا عَلَى الْوَلائِجِ وَ وَصَلُوا غَيْرَ الرَّحِمِ وَ هَجَرُوا السَّبَبَ الَّذِي أُمِرُوا بِمَوَدَّتِهِ وَ نَقَلُوا الْبِنَاءَ عَنْ رَصِّ أَسَاسِهِ فَبَنَوْهُ فِي غَيْرِ مَوْضِعِهِ مَعَادِنُ كُلِّ خَطِيئَةٍ وَ أَبْوَابُ كُلِّ ضَارِبٍ فِي غَمْرَةٍ قَدْ مَارُوا فِي الْحَيْرَةِ وَ ذَهَلُوا فِي السَّكْرَةِ عَلَى سُنَّةٍ مِنْ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ مِنْ مُنْقَطِعٍ إِلَى الدُّنْيَا رَاكِنٍ أَوْ مُفَارِقٍ لِلدِّينِ مُبَايِن .

Nahjol Balaghah lel Sheikh Mohammad Abdeh: 2/35 sermon no 150, Sharh Nahjol Balaqa 9/132

 

After the heart rendering demise of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) some people came back to their age of ignorance and got deviated and insisted on their wrong and false thoughts, and they stayed away from Ahlol bayt (the house hold of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) while they were ordered to befriend them and they moved the foundation of Islam and established it where it didn’t deserve.

They became the origin of any sin and a sanctuary for militants, eventually they were submerged in confusion and ignorantly followed the practice of the pharaohs, they left people and stuck to the world, and breached their wows with religion."

The traditions mentioned in the book Asoul-Al Kaafi and numerating over twenty of caliph 's heresies:

In the valuable book of kaafi there is a well-documented tradition whose narrators are all from great Shia scholars, we just numerate the heresies mentioned in the remarks of Imam:

عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ عِيسَى عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ سُلَيْمِ بْنِ قَيْسٍ الْهِلَالِيِّ قَالَ خَطَبَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ وَ أَثْنَى عَلَيْهِ ثُمَّ صَلَّى عَلَى النَّبِيِّ ص ثُمَّ قَالَ أَلَا إِنَّ أَخْوَفَ مَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ خَلَّتَانِ اتِّبَاعُ الْهَوَى وَ طُولُ الْأَمَلِ أَمَّا اتِّبَاعُ الْهَوَى فَيَصُدُّ عَنِ الْحَقِّ وَ أَمَّا طُولُ الْأَمَلِ فَيُنْسِي الْآخِرَةَ أَلَا إِنَّ الدُّنْيَا قَدْ تَرَحَّلَتْ مُدْبِرَةً وَ إِنَّ الْآخِرَةَ قَدْ تَرَحَّلَتْ مُقْبِلَةً وَ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدَةٍ بَنُونَ فَكُونُوا مِنْ أَبْنَاءِ الْآخِرَةِ وَ لَا تَكُونُوا مِنْ أَبْنَاءِ الدُّنْيَا فَإِنَّ الْيَوْمَ عَمَلٌ وَ لَا حِسَابَ وَ إِنَّ غَداً حِسَابٌ وَ لَا عَمَلَ وَ إِنَّمَا بَدْءُ وُقُوعِ الْفِتَنِ مِنْ أَهْوَاءٍ تُتَّبَعُ وَ أَحْكَامٍ تُبْتَدَعُ يُخَالَفُ فِيهَا حُكْمُ اللَّهِ يَتَوَلَّى فِيهَا رِجَالٌ رِجَالًا

أَلَا إِنَّ الْحَقَّ لَوْ خَلَصَ لَمْ يَكُنِ اخْتِلَافٌ وَ لَوْ أَنَّ الْبَاطِلَ خَلَصَ لَمْ يُخَفْ عَلَى ذِي حِجًى لَكِنَّهُ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ هَذَا ضِغْثٌ وَ مِنْ هَذَا ضِغْثٌ فَيُمْزَجَانِ فَيُجَلَّلَانِ مَعاً فَهُنَالِكَ يَسْتَوْلِي الشَّيْطَانُ عَلَى أَوْلِيَائِهِ وَ نَجَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقَتْ لَهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ الْحُسْنَى

إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) يَقُولُ كَيْفَ أَنْتُمْ إِذَا لَبَسَتْكُمْ فِتْنَةٌ يَرْبُو فِيهَا الصَّغِيرُ وَ يَهْرَمُ فِيهَا الْكَبِيرُ يَجْرِي النَّاسُ عَلَيْهَا وَ يَتَّخِذُونَهَا سُنَّةً فَإِذَا غُيِّرَ مِنْهَا شَيْ‏ءٌ قِيلَ قَدْ غُيِّرَتِ السُّنَّةُ وَ قَدْ أَتَى النَّاسُ مُنْكَراً ثُمَّ تَشْتَدُّ الْبَلِيَّةُ وَ تُسْبَى الذُّرِّيَّةُ وَ تَدُقُّهُمُ الْفِتْنَةُ كَمَا تَدُقُّ النَّارُ الْحَطَبَ وَ كَمَا تَدُقُّ الرَّحَى بِثِفَالِهَا وَ يَتَفَقَّهُونَ لِغَيْرِ اللَّهِ وَ يَتَعَلَّمُونَ لِغَيْرِ الْعَمَلِ وَ يَطْلُبُونَ الدُّنْيَا بِأَعْمَالِ الْآخِرَةِ ثُمَّ أَقْبَلَ بِوَجْهِهِ وَ حَوْلَهُ نَاسٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِهِ وَ خَاصَّتِهِ وَ شِيعَتِهِ

فَقَالَ قَدْ عَمِلَتِ الْوُلَاةُ قَبْلِي أَعْمَالًا خَالَفُوا فِيهَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) مُتَعَمِّدِينَ لِخِلَافِهِ نَاقِضِينَ لِعَهْدِهِ مُغَيِّرِينِ لِسُنَّتِهِ وَ لَوْ حَمَلْتُ النَّاسَ عَلَى تَرْكِهَا وَ حَوَّلْتُهَا إِلَى مَوَاضِعِهَا وَ إِلَى مَا كَانَتْ فِي عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) لَتَفَرَّقَ عَنِّي جُنْدِي حَتَّى أَبْقَى وَحْدِي أَوْ قَلِيلٌ مِنْ شِيعَتِيَ الَّذِينَ عَرَفُوا فَضْلِي وَ فَرْضَ إِمَامَتِي مِنْ كِتَابِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ سُنَّةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم)

أَ رَأَيْتُمْ لَوْ أَمَرْتُ بِمَقَامِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ (عليه السلام) فَرَدَدْتُهُ إِلَى الْمَوْضِعِ الَّذِي وَضَعَهُ فِيهِ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم)

وَ رَدَدْتُ فَدَكاً إِلَى وَرَثَةِ فَاطِمَةَ (عليها السلام) وَ رَدَدْتُ صَاعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) كَمَا كَانَ وَ أَمْضَيْتُ قَطَائِعَ أَقْطَعَهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم)‏ لِأَقْوَامٍ لَمْ تُمْضَ لَهُمْ وَ لَمْ تُنْفَذْ وَ رَدَدْتُ دَارَ جَعْفَرٍ إِلَى وَرَثَتِهِ وَ هَدَمْتُهَا مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ وَ رَدَدْتُ قَضَايَا مِنَ الْجَوْرِ قُضِيَ بِهَا

وَ نَزَعْتُ نِسَاءً تَحْتَ رِجَالٍ بِغَيْرِ حَقٍّ فَرَدَدْتُهُنَّ إِلَى أَزْوَاجِهِنَّ وَ اسْتَقْبَلْتُ بِهِنَّ الْحُكْمَ فِي الْفُرُوجِ وَ الْأَحْكَامِ وَ سَبَيْتُ ذَرَارِيَّ بَنِي تَغْلِبَ وَ رَدَدْتُ مَا قُسِمَ مِنْ أَرْضِ خَيْبَرَ وَ مَحَوْتُ دَوَاوِينَ الْعَطَايَا

وَ أَعْطَيْتُ كَمَا كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم)‏ يُعْطِي بِالسَّوِيَّةِ وَ لَمْ أَجْعَلْهَا دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ وَ أَلْقَيْتُ الْمَسَاحَةَ وَ سَوَّيْتُ بَيْنَ الْمَنَاكِحِ وَ أَنْفَذْتُ خُمُسَ الرَّسُولِ كَمَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ فَرَضَهُ

وَ رَدَدْتُ مَسْجِدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) إِلَى مَا كَانَ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَدَدْتُ مَا فُتِحَ فِيهِ مِنَ الْأَبْوَابِ وَ فَتَحْتُ مَا سُدَّ مِنْهُ وَ حَرَّمْتُ الْمَسْحَ عَلَى الْخُفَّيْنِ وَ حَدَدْتُ عَلَى النَّبِيذِ وَ أَمَرْتُ بِإِحْلَالِ الْمُتْعَتَيْنِ وَ أَمَرْتُ بِالتَّكْبِيرِ عَلَى الْجَنَائِزِ خَمْسَ تَكْبِيرَاتٍ وَ أَلْزَمْتُ النَّاسَ الْجَهْرَ بِبِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ‏

وَ أَخْرَجْتُ مَنْ أُدْخِلَ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) فِي مَسْجِدِهِ مِمَّنْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) أَخْرَجَهُ وَ أَدْخَلْتُ مَنْ أُخْرِجَ بَعْدَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) مِمَّنْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) أَدْخَلَهُ وَ حَمَلْتُ النَّاسَ عَلَى حُكْمِ الْقُرْآنِ وَ عَلَى الطَّلَاقِ عَلَى السُّنَّةِ وَ أَخَذْتُ الصَّدَقَاتِ عَلَى أَصْنَافِهَا وَ حُدُودِهَا

وَ رَدَدْتُ الْوُضُوءَ وَ الْغُسْلَ وَ الصَّلَاةَ إِلَى مَوَاقِيتِهَا وَ شَرَائِعِهَا وَ مَوَاضِعِهَا وَ رَدَدْتُ أَهْلَ نَجْرَانَ إِلَى مَوَاضِعِهِمْ وَ رَدَدْتُ سَبَايَا فَارِسَ وَ سَائِرِ الْأُمَمِ إِلَى كِتَابِ اللَّهِ وَ سُنَّةِ نَبِيِّهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) إِذاً لَتَفَرَّقُوا عَنِّي

وَ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ أَمَرْتُ النَّاسَ أَنْ لَا يَجْتَمِعُوا فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ إِلَّا فِي فَرِيضَةٍ وَ أَعْلَمْتُهُمْ أَنَّ اجْتِمَاعَهُمْ فِي النَّوَافِلِ بِدْعَةٌ فَتَنَادَى بَعْضُ أَهْلِ عَسْكَرِي مِمَّنْ يُقَاتِلُ مَعِي يَا أَهْلَ الْإِسْلَامِ غُيِّرَتْ سُنَّةُ عُمَرَ يَنْهَانَا عَنِ الصَّلَاةِ فِي شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ تَطَوُّعاً وَ لَقَدْ خِفْتُ أَنْ يَثُورُوا فِي نَاحِيَةِ جَانِبِ عَسْكَرِي

مَا لَقِيتُ مِنْ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ مِنَ الْفُرْقَةِ وَ طَاعَةِ أَئِمَّةِ الضَّلَالَةِ وَ الدُّعَاةِ إِلَى النَّارِ وَ أَعْطَيْتُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ سَهْمَ ذِي الْقُرْبَى الَّذِي قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ وَ ما أَنْزَلْنا عَلى‏ عَبْدِنا يَوْمَ الْفُرْقانِ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعانِ

فَنَحْنُ وَ اللَّهِ عَنَى بِذِي الْقُرْبَى الَّذِي قَرَنَنَا اللَّهُ بِنَفْسِهِ وَ بِرَسُولِهِ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) فَقَالَ تَعَالَى فَلِلَّهِ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِي الْقُرْبى‏ وَ الْيَتامى‏ وَ الْمَساكِينِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ فِينَا خَاصَّةً كَيْ لا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِياءِ مِنْكُمْ وَ ما آتاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَ ما نَهاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ فِي ظُلْمِ آلِ مُحَمَّدٍ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقابِ لِمَنْ ظَلَمَهُمْ رَحْمَةً مِنْهُ لَنَا وَ غِنًى أَغْنَانَا اللَّهُ بِهِ وَ وَصَّى بِهِ نَبِيَّهُ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم)

وَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ لَنَا فِي سَهْمِ الصَّدَقَةِ نَصِيباً أَكْرَمَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) وَ أَكْرَمَنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ أَنْ يُطْعِمَنَا مِنْ أَوْسَاخِ النَّاسِ فَكَذَّبُوا اللَّهَ وَ كَذَّبُوا رَسُولَهُ وَ جَحَدُوا كِتَابَ اللَّهِ النَّاطِقَ بِحَقِّنَا وَ مَنَعُونَا فَرْضاً فَرَضَهُ اللَّهُ لَنَا مَا لَقِيَ أَهْلُ بَيْتِ نَبِيٍّ مِنْ أُمَّتِهِ مَا لَقِينَا بَعْدَ نَبِيِّنَا (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم) وَ اللَّهُ الْمُسْتَعَانُ عَلَى مَنْ ظَلَمَنَا وَ لَا حَوْلَ وَ لَا قُوَّةَ إِلَّا بِاللَّهِ الْعَلِيِّ الْعَظِيم

 

Amir Al-Momenin Imam Ali (peace be upon him) presented a sermon in which Imam sent salutations to the almighty and the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), and then said beware that the strong passion blocks the path of truth, and strong wishes make one forget about the resurrection day, beware that [this]world is not here to stay, and the other world is to come, but they both have their interest in human, so try to be of the children of the resurrection day rather than being the children of this world ( try to concern about the resurrection day), indeed this world is the time of trying and there is audit, and in hereafter there will be audit and no trying , truly seditions are started by following desires, and the heresies in which God 's orders are disobeyed and become laws. Some people hire the others to do that.

Beware that there will be no discrepancy if the truth is separated from void, and it won 't be hidden from a wise person if the void is separated, however they try to have portions of both of them, this is when Satan dominates his followers, and those to whom God had earlier considered good deeds survive, I heard the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) say, "how are you going to be like when seditions are among you and you are unaware of them, the time at which a child grows to be adult, and adult grows older, it [the seditions] are running among people, but people follow it as a practice and if some parts of it is changed they would say, "you altered the practice and nation is suffering an oppression. Then the test gets tougher and captivates people, and sedition would be dominant on people as is fire on wood or like grindstone that is rolling on the leavings; they follow the religion for the sake of someone else than for the sake of God, they seek for knowledge with the intention of gaining something rather than science.

Then Imam turned to his Shiites (followers) while some of his relatives were around him and said:

“The Caliphs before me intentionally practiced such acts in which they went against the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) they broke the promises (which they made with the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) and changed the Sunnah (practice) of Rasool Allah (peace be upon him). If (today) I ask people to leave all these things (innovations) and restore things back to the way they were at the time of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) my army shall rebel and abandon me, and I shall be left alone. All that shall remain turning to me shall be those Shi’a who recognize my virtues and rank.

 “if I return Maqam Ibrahim to its original place that the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) had put, If I return Fadak to the heirs of Fatima and if I order to restore the “Sa’a” (a unit for measuring Zakat) of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) And if I return the properties, which were given by the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) to their original owners, and if I give Jafars 's house back to his heir and if collapse the mosque on it  (since they usurped his house and built a mosque on it ), if I deny the decisions which were based on injustice (and tyranny), and snatch the women who were illegally taken by some people and return them to their husbands, and if I bring the ruling of God in action about adultery for them and if I captivate the people of the tribe of Bani Taqlab(since they waged a war with Muslims and the holy prophet had commended to captivate them all)and if I restore the lands shared among people (since these lands are called Maftouh Anwa it means no war was waged to occupy the majority of the lands thus they are the lands of every Muslim and do not belong to some special people) and if I demolish all those notebooks of tuition distribution  (since the caliphs had some notebooks in which about some people it was written that this amounts of money is ought to be paid to some people as tuition)    and if I deny the (unjust) distribution of Fadak, and start giving the shares to everyone equally (as were originally given the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), but earlier caliphs started giving according to status),and if I don’t spend it for the prosperity of the rich and if I call the marriages must be all equal (since the caliphs had ordered a non Arab is not allowed to marry an Arab however the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) said Muslims are all the same)  …. and restore the condition of Khums of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) as ordered by God ( not like the earlier caliphas who considered it as their own portions as God 's caliphs) and restore the mosque of the Prophet (s) to its original position, and close the private gates (any of the top companions whose houses were near the mosque after the demise of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) and unlike his order made some private gates from their houses opening into the mosque) and open the locked gates ( the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him had ordered a door must be opened from Imam Ali 's home into the mosque and a balcony from Abbass ' home but they were closed at the time of the caliphate of the caliphs) if I  make “Masah alal Khaffin” Haram (religiously illegal). ( the caliphs considered it permissible), and issue the punishment (“Had”) for drinking “Nabeedh” (alcohol made out of barley),( the caliphs considered drinking it permissible) and give the fatwa for Mut’ah being Halaal, and start saying 5 Takbirs at funeral ( the caliphs said 4 Takbirs), and make it obligatory upon people to recite “Bismillah” loudly during Salat and if I discharge those who were exiled by the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) and came to the mosques after his demise ( the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him had exiled Marwan and his father but the caliphs made them the leader of the congregational prayers of the mosque the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) and bring back those who are exiled now but at the time of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) were in the mosques ( some of the companions didn’t have houses to live thus the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him)settled them in the mosque, but the caliphs expelled them and ask people to follow the Quranic and Sunnah way of giving Talaq (divorce), (based on this verse there is no need of two witnesses for marriage but two are needed at the time of divorce but the caliphs confused these two and issued vice a versa verdicts) and ask people to give all the Sadaqat(charities had to be distributed among all of the poor, but the caliphs gave some of it to some of people), and to restore the way of ablution, bathing and prayer to its original form and time ( since the daily prayers can be said three times a day, but the caliphs disobeyed and altered the conditions of making ablution they also altered Wotho since in Wotho arms must be washed from top to down but they did it from down to up and Mas 'h of the head which was changed by the caliphs , )and give back the fidya (which was unjustly taken) to people of Najran( one of the final remarks of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) was to accompany the army of Osamah  may the almighty curse the one who does not join this army but the caliphs didn’t join the army and to white wash the issue said the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) said" accompany the army , and do not allow to religions be left in Jazirstol Arab, and  that’s why they ordered to discharge the people of Najran who were all Christians , however they had relations with the Jews who were friends with them, and even Kabol Ahbar could be much influential in the issue of caliphate)

 and return the slave girls of people of Persia, and ask people to return to Qur’an and Sunnah ( practice) of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him)( they[ the caliphs] had ordered that no non Arab slave is allowed to enter the Islamic territory unless he or she is permitted by his master or that they were not allowed to be the heirs of their master provided that the masters do not have any other heir , then all people will abandon me (and I will be left alone). I ordered people that they should only gather for Fardh (obligatory) prayers during Ramadhan, and told them that congregation (Jamah) in Nafal (i.e. Tarawih) is a Bidah (innovation) then all of these people started shouting that Sunnah of Hadhrat Umar has been changed. i feared they might rebel against me as I already have witnessed it from this deviated and hell inviter people. And if I pay the portion of   khoms to the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) about which God has said" if you believe in God and in what I revealed on my creations, after gaining the war booties pay its Khums. So by God we are the relatives of that prophet (peace be upon him) we are the ones whom God has put us along Himself and His messenger , he said What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (and taken away) from the people of the townships,- belongs to Allah,- to His Messenger and to kindred and orphans, the needy and the wayfarer; In order that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you. So take what the Messenger assigns to you, and deny yourselves that which he withholds from you. And fear Allah; for Allah is strict in Punishment.(this act of God regarding Ahlol Bayt and receiving Khums was a mercy and wealth by which the almighty has freed us from it , so they denied God and His messenger and they also denied God 's book that spoke about us, they banned us from a compulsory wealth that we were given by God , and never the progeny of any prophet experienced what we did after the demise of the holy prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), God will assist us against the ones who have oppressed us. There is no power except for Allah the Almighty.  

 

In this single tradition, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has remarked over twenty of instances of innovations laid down by the caliphs before him, and Imam has considered governmental reasons as the reason of not opposing them.

So Imam revealed the innovations of the early caliphs, however people were divided into two groups, one group were tended toward the innovations after early caliphs and did not concur Imam 's statement; the second group were the Shiites who concurred.

It goes without saying that as Imam in this tradition has said the first group formed the majority, and his opposition with the impression of the, [ the early caliphs] could cause civil war that’s why Imam Ali (peace be upon him) didn’t make it publicly known.

Good luck.

The group of answering to the doubts

The investigative center of Valiasr (May God hasten his advent)



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