Sunday 23 October 2016
Is commander of faithful [AS] superior to the prophets [PBUTH]?
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Is commander of faithful [AS] superior to the prophets [PBUTH]?

Is commander of faithful [AS] superior to the prophets [PBUTH]?

You might be surprise after seeing this title that Ali [AS] is superior to all prophets [AS] except prophet Muhammad [PBUTH], and before any studying, you might accuse us of exaggeration and passing the limit of mind and Sharia, but before any judgment we suggest you to follow us to see that how we prove this fact by reasoning and logic, then you’ll judge and find out that getting to the fact isn’t difficult but it will be easy by passing pessimism and doubt.

Ali’s[AS] superiority amongst humans is an inevitable fact, because both “Quran” and “traditions” prove this belief, though, dirty hands have always tried to deny the virtues and high traits of this divine man and have perverted the mind of many of Muslims by changing historical facts, so we’ll follow the matter of Ali’s superiority in three chapters: “Quran”, “tradition” and “mind”:

The superior appearance of Ali [AS] in “Quran”:

1: “Tathir” verse:[purification]

The first verse amongst tens of verses in “Quran” that explains and implies-as narrators and interpreters admitted- the superiority of spiritual positions of commander of faithful [AS] is this verse:

«انما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس اهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا»

O family of the House, Allah only wishes to distance fault from you, and to cleanse you, and to purify you abundantly. 

Sura AL-AHZAB, verse 33

In this verse- known as “Tathir” verse- Ali [AS] and his infallible children [AS] were introduced better than all prophets [AS]except prophet Muhammad [PBUH], because god has decisively announced the cleanliness and infallibility of all his messenger’s dynasty.  

Important words in this verse such as: ”انّما، يريد، ليذهب، الرجس, اهل البيتare the secrets and keys of understanding this verse that without knowing them we won’t be able to realize the profound content of this verse, so we’ll deal with explaining these words:

1: the word "انّما" shows exclusiveness:

This word at the first of the verse implies special attention to the topic and content of the verse, because this word makes limitation and exclusiveness in the meaning and content of the verse that shows the importance and the greatness of the content.

“Ibn Manzoor” says:

ومعني إنما إثبات لما يذكر بعدها ونفي لما سواه كقوله : وإنما يدافع عن أحسابهم أنا أو مثلي المعني : ما يدافع عن أحسابهم إلا أنا أو من هو مثلي ،

The word “انّما” proves the concept of what is written after it such as this sentence: me and guys like me defense our reputation, in fact he says: only me and guys like me are like this not anyone else.

Lesan Al-Arab,v 13, p 31

This point must be paid attention that exclusiveness in this verse is the “exclusiveness of decree in topic”, like “Velayat” verse: «انّما وليّكم اللّه و رسوله والذين آمنوا...» this verse is special for god and his messenger and believers with particular trait which is paying the obligatory charity while praying.

Purification in the verse of conversation is definitely from the first type means “exclusiveness in the sentence” not “exclusiveness in the topic”, it means, distance from the fault and purification are particular for those who are under the title of “Ahl Al-Bayt” [AS] and this trait is for them not any one else

2: “pronoun” emphasizes on exclusiveness

Not only the word “انّما" shows exclusiveness, but the “عنکم” emphasizes on more exclusiveness, because the object of the verb «ليُذهب» which is “الرجس” must be after its verb but it’s like that and “عنکم” is between them that isn’t without reason because when a word that its position is at end of the sentence, is preceded, it shows the exclusiveness of concept in that sentence.

“Ibn Hajar” writes in his book, chapter: sent down verses about “Ahl Al-Bayt” virtues.

الآية الأولي: قال الله تعالي: إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا.

Sura AL-AHZAB, verse 33

أكثر المفسرين علي أنها نزلت في علي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين لتذكير ضمير عنكم وما بعده.

Most of interpreters say that this verse is about “Ali” [AS], “Fatimah” [AS], Hasan and Hussein [AS], because of this pronoun «عنكم».

Then he quotes possibilities using of the word “it’s been said” that its reference is unclear and he says after quoting some narratives: this verse has been sent down about spouses and all “Bani Hashim”.

Him and his followers who’re trying to partner ordinary and incompetent in such great virtues, must be questioned that: why despite the confession of most of interpreters who say that this verse is sent down about particular people from Prophet’s [PBUH] relative dynasty, you rely on the talk of minority and try to show that what they say is true? Isn’t it enmity towards “Ali” [AS], “Fatimah” [AS] and their two children?

Eventually, “Ibn Hajar” says that this verse is the resource of all virtues of “Ahl Al-Bayt” [AS] not anyone else, and انما"” that implies exclusiveness, shows that this verse is just about “Ah Al-Bayt” [AS].

ثم هذه الآية منبع فضائل أهل البيت النبوي لاشتمالها علي غرر من مآثرهم والاعتناء بشأنهم حيث ابتدئت بإنما المفيدة لحصر إرادته تعالي في أمرهم علي إذهاب الرجس الذي هو الإثم أو الشك فيما يجب الإيمان به عنه وتطهيرهم من سائر الأخلاق والأحوال المذمومة.

This verse is the resource of all virtues of prophet’s [PBUH] dynasty, and is particular for “Ahl Al-Bayt”, because the word انما has negated any kind of evil, sin and doubt towards them.

3: god’s will:

God’s will in the sentence ” يريد الله “ is “Takvini will” [god’s will while creating creatures, god’s act] not “Tashri’i will” [god’s legitimate commands and prohibitions] , because in “Tashri’i will” all people are addressed without exception, but “Takvini will” doesn’t need to contain everybody and god can allocate a virtue or a trait to certain people and deprive others.

So in the verse of conversation will is just “Takvini will” because removing filth and getting purified aren’t general to contain all people or followers of a sect, because fault means any kind of filth that makes others to detest and getting away of sincere slavery of god and this fact isn’t fulfilled unless by god’s “Takvini will”. 

4: removing the filth:

The word “اذهاب” in here means repulsing before appearance because it’s used in this meaning in our conversations, for instance someone says: «أذهب اللّه عنكم الداء والسوء» I wish god to keep you away of disease and sadness, that doesn’t mean that that guy is sick and he’s praying for him to recover but this wish could be made before disease or hardship.

So “اذهاب” means “repulse” that before appearing barriers avoid of it, not “removal” which is eliminating after appearance, that’s why the word “لیذهب” is in the verse not “لیزیل”.

5. Filth and evil:

One of the key words in this verse is the word “filth”. Famous philologist “Fuyoomi” writes:

« الرجس: النتن. و الرجس: القذر. قال الفارابيّ: كلّ شي ء يستقذر فهو رجس».

“Filth” means any smelly thing, “Faryabi” says: anything that our taste dislikes it is “filth”.

 Ahmad bin Mohammed Al-fuyoomi, mesbah Al-Munir, vol. 1, p. 219,

The author of the book “Al-ein” writes:

« رجس: كل شي ء يستقذر فهو رجس كالخنزير، و قد رجس الرجل رجاسة من القذر، و إنه لرجس مرجوس. و الرجس في القرآن العذاب كالرجز، و كل قذر رجس. و رجس الشيطان وسوسته و همزه...».

“Filth” is anything that is “Evil”, like “Pig”, and in “Quran” filth means punishment and any evil is filth.

The book “Al-ein”, v 6, p 52

“Raghib Esbahani” has divided “Filth” to three parts, naturel, intellectual and legitimate, and says:

« الرجس الشيء القذر».

“Filth” is anything which is unclean and polluted.

So “Filth” is anything that its existence in human paves the way for “Fault”, suffers our soul and makes people away from us and it contains both committing sin or falling in evil’s traps and temptations.

Though, some have tried to limit the concept and instance of the verse saying that “Filth” just contains associating with god, it means “Ahl Al-Bayt” don’t associate with god and it doesn’t contain other sins, till this way they can prove that verse includes some of relatives of prophet [PBUH], it means this verse isn’t exclusive in “Ahl Al-Bayt” [Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, Hussein [AS], but “ال” in the word “الرجس” [Filth], makes this word to imply generality, so undoubtedly, it contains negating different types of spiritual and worldly evils, both appearance and inner faults or any astray at any time which results the complete infallibility of all sins, not just associating with god.

Elders’ interpreters:

Fortunately, Sunni scholars have mentioned to this point that “Filth” includes all sins and evils not just associating with god:

“Fathr Razi” says in the interpretation of this book:

فقوله تعالي : { لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرجس } أي يزيل عنكم الذنوب ويطهركم أي يلبسكم خلع الكرامة...

This verse means: god has distanced all sins from you and put the cloth of dignity on you.

Al-Razi Safi’I, Tafsir al-kabir, v 22, p 201

“hessas” Sunni exegete says in his book:

قال تعالي ( إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا) يحتمل التطهير من الذنوب.

Probably it means purity of evil and sins.

Decrees of Quran, v 4 p 33

 “Shukani” says:

« والمراد بالرجس الإثم والذنب المدنسان للأعراض الحاصلان بسبب ترك ما أمر الله به وفعل ما نهي عنه فيدخل تحت ذلك كل ما ليس فيه لله رضا ».

“Filth” means sins committed due to disobeying god and doing what he dislikes.

Fath Al-Qadir, v 4, p 278

Other exegetes such as: “Ibn Atiyah” and “Tha’labi” have said:

« و الرِّجْسَ اسم يقع علي الإثم و علي العذاب و علي النجاسات و النقائص، فأذهب اللّه جميع ذلك عن أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ ».

“Filth” includes punishment, unclean things and any fault, god has distanced all of them from “Ahl Al-Bayt”.

Javaher Al-Lesan in interpretation of “Quran”, v 4, p 346

“Aloosi” writes in his exegete book:

والرجس في الأصل الشيء القذر...، وقيل : إن الرجس يقع علي الإثم وعلي العذاب وعلي النجاسة وعلي النقائص ، والمراد به هنا ما يعم كل ذلك ... وأل فيه للجنس أو للاستغراق ، والمراد بالتطهير قيل: التحلية بالتقوي ، والمعني علي ما قيل: إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الذنوب والمعاصي فيما نهاكم ويحليكم بالتقوي تحلية بليغة فيما أمركم ، وجوّز أن يراد به الصون ، والمعني إنما يريد سبحانه ليذهب عنكم الرجس ويصونكم من المعاصي صوناً بليغاً فيما أمر ونهي جل شأنه .

“Filth” means evil….. and it’s been said that it includes sin, punishment and impurity and any fault, the meaning of “رجس” [Filth] in this verse includes all mentioned meanings…. “ال” in the word “التطهیر” [purification] shows generality, it means god’s willed to distance sins from you “Ahl Al-Bayt” and adorn with piety and protect you of evil.

Rooh Al-Ma’ani, v 22, p 12

“Tantavi” another Sunni expert in his exegete book:

« و الرجس في الأصل : يطلق علي كل شئ مستقذر. وأريد به هنا : الذنوب والآثام وما يشبه ذلك من النقائص والأدناس».

In fact, “Filth” includes any evil thing, but in this verse, it means the purity of any sin and fault.

Tantavi, Tafsir al-Vasit, v 11, p 20

6: Ahl Al-Bayt” [people of the house]

The word “Ahl” is used about those that we have kind of physical, spiritual, intellectual, religious and family dependence towards them. So our family members, spouse, child, grand child and …. are our “Ahl” because we depend on them. So we can say that radical point in the meaning of “Ahl” is dependence, though, sometimes guys except our relatives can be part of our “Ahl”, such as “Salman Farsi” who gets the title of “منّا اهل البيت”, [Salmanis part of Ahl Al-Bayt]. But sometimes it’s vice versa, despite of someone is our relative but due to an act against god’s command and disobeying father’s request, isn’t considered as our “Ahl” such as: the son of “Noah” that god says about him:

انّه ليس من أهلك

Plus showing family relation, sometimes this word has other meanings that its next word determines it.

At first we take look at the opinions of philologist about the word “Ahl” then we’ll say the view of narrators, historians.

Philologists like: “Ibn Manzoor” and others say:

أَهْل الرجل عَشِيرتُه وذَوُو قُرْباه.

The “Ahl” of a man are his dynasty and relatives.

Lesan al-Arab, v 11, p28, Taj al-Aroos, v 28, p 40

Late “Tarihi” writes:

(أهل) أهل الرجل: آله. و هم أشياعه و أتباعه و أهل ملته...و قد مر في (امر): أنهم أهل بيته خاصة.

The “Ahl” of a man are his dynasty and followers.

Majma’ al-Bahrain, al-Tarihi, v 5, p 203

After looking up into the words of the verse and taking look at the views of philology elders, now we’ll talk about the cause of the revelation of the verse to see if verse includes Ali [AS] like prophet [PBUH], Fatimah [AS] and her children, till he enjoys of this grate virtue or not?

Allamah “Jalal Al-din Suyuti” has quoted 20 narratives quoted via different ways in exegete “Al-Dur Al-Mansur” to prove that the meaning of “Ahl Al-Bayt” is: prophet [PBUH], Ali [AS], Fatimah [AS], Hasan and Hussein [AS]:

أخرج ابن جرير وابن أبي حاتم والطبراني وابن مردويه عن أم سلمة رضي الله عنها زوج النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم : « أن رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم كان ببيتها علي منامة له عليه كساء خيبري ، فجاءت فاطمة رضي الله عنها ببرمة فيها خزيرة فقال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم » ادعي زوجك ، وابنيك ، حسناً ، وحسيناً ، فدعتهم فبينما هم يأكلون إذ نزلت علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم { إنما يريد الله ليذهب عنكم الرجس أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيراً } فأخذ النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم بفضلة ازاره ، فغشاهم إياها ، ثم أخرج يده من الكساء وأومأ بها إلي السماء ، ثم قال : اللهم هؤلاء أهل بيتي وخاصتي ، فاذهب عنهم الرجس ، وطهرهم تطهيراً ، قالها ثلاث مرات . قالت أم سلمة رضي الله عنها : فادخلت رأسي في الستر فقلت : يا رسول الله وأنا معكم فقال : إنك إلي خير مرتين « ».

It’s been quoted from “Umm Salamah”: prophet [PBUH] was in my house and had put on a “Kheibari” cloak. “Fatimah” [AS] came in, prophet [PBUH] said to her: call upon your husband and your two children “Hasan” and “Hussein” [AS], Fatimah [AS] did so and they began having food, suddenly this verse was sent down:” Family of the House, Allah only wishes to distance fault from you, and to cleanse you, and to purify you abundantly”, prophet [PBUH] put clock on their head, then, he raised his hand hands towards sky and said: these are my “Ahl al-Bayt”, god! Purify them of any type of filth, he repeated this sentence three times. “Umm Salamah” said: what about me? Prophet [PBUH] said: you’re in good path.

Al-dur Al-Mansur, v 6, p 603

“Haskani” is another narrator of quoted narratives about “Quran” verses, he’s quoted several narratives about this verse too:

The narrative of “Jaber ibn Abd Allah ibn Ansari”:

نزلت هذه الآية علي النبي ص و ليس في البيت إلا فاطمة و الحسن و الحسين و عليّ إِنَّما يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ يُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيراً فقال النبي ص: اللهم هؤلاء أهلي ».

When this verse was sent down there wasn’t anybody at home except Fatimah [AS], Hsana and Hussein [AS] and Ali [AS], prophet [PBUH] said: god, they’re my “Ahl”.

Haskani, Shavahid Al-Tanzil, v 2, p 29

The result of this part of studying about “Tat,hir” verse shows the presence of Ali [AS] beside prophet [PBUH] his spouse and his two children. They’re given good tiding by god, which is purification and distance of any pollution and filth, and it shows Ali’s [AS] superiority than prophets [AS]. [Though he’s not prophet and is just successor of prophet].

2: “Mubahilah” verse [cursing the ones who lie]

This is another verse that proves Ali’s [AS] superiority than all prophets except prophet Muhammad [PBUH]:

فمن حاجك فيه من بعد ماجاءك من العلم فقل تعالوا ندع ابناءنا وابناءكم و نساءنا ونساءكم وانفسنا وانفسكم ثم نبتهل فنجعل لعنة الله علي الكاذبين .

Those who dispute with you concerning him after the knowledge has come to you, say: 'Come, let us gather our sons and your sons, our womenfolk and your womenfolk, ourselves and yourselves. Then let us humbly pray, so lay the curse of Allah upon the ones who lie.

Sura AL-E-IMRAN, verse  61

THE cause of revelation

Undoubtedly, “Mubahilah” verse was sent down about five selected persons by god [those who prophet put his cloak on them plus prophet [PBUH], Because many of narrators, exegetes, historians and theologians have written this issue in their books and it’s among certain issues. On the other hand historical evidences prove that, in the event “Mubahilah” with “Najran” Nazarenes, prophet [PBUH], amongst women, just Fatimah [AS] and –amongst children- just took Hasan and Hussein [AS] his two grandchildren with him.

“Muslim” writes in his book:

ولمّا نزلت هذه الآية : (فقل تعالوا ندع أبنائنا وأبنائكم) دعا رسول اللّه ص عليّاً وفاطمة وحسناً وحسيناً فقال : اللهمّ هؤلاء أهلي.

When this verse was sent down prophet [PBUH] called upon Ali [AS], Fatimah [AS], Hsana and Hussein [AS] and prayed: god, they’re my dynasty.

Shahih Muslim, v 7, p 120, the book of shabis virtues, musnad Ahamd, v 1, p 185

أخرج الحاكم وصححه وابن مردويه وأبو نعيم في الدلائل عن جابر قال » قدم علي النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم العاقب ، والسيد ، فدعاهما إلي الإِسلام فقالا : أسلمنا يا محمد قال : كذبتما إن شئتما أخبرتكما بما يمنعكما من الإِسلام . قالا : فهات . قال : حب الصليب ، وشرب الخمر ، وأكل لحم الخنزير ، قال جابر : فدعاهما إلي الملاعنة ، فوعداه إلي الغد ، فغدا رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ، وأخذ بيد علي ، وفاطمة ، والحسن ، والحسين ، ثم أرسل إليهما فأبيا أن يجيباه ، وأقرا له ، فقال : والذي بعثني بالحق لو فعلا لأمطر الوادي عليهما ناراً . قال جابر : فيهم نزلت { تعالوا ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم . . . } الآية . قال جابر : أنفسنا وأنفسكم رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم وعلي ، وأبناءنا الحسن والحسين ، ونساءنا فاطمة.

Two of Christian famous figures named “Aqib” and “Sayed Muhzar” wen to prophet [PBUH]. Prophet [PBUH] told them to become Muslim, they said: we’re Muslim, prophet said: you’re lying, if you want I can prove that you’re not Muslim, they said: prove, prophet said: you’re interest in cross and drinking wine and eating pork, then invited them to “Mubahilah”, in the morning Prophet[PBUH] went out of “MEDINA” with All [AS], Fatimah [AS] and Hasan and Hussein [AS], and ivited “Sayed Aqib” to “Mubahilah” but they didn’t accept and gave up. Prophet [PBUH] said: swear to god, if they had accepted my invitation to “Mubahilah”, fire would have showered on them from sky, “Jabir” said: this verse this verse was sent down about prophet’s [PBUH] dynasty: [.…تعالوا ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم ]

Al-Durr al-Manthur, v 2, p 230

أخرج الحاكم وصححه عن جابر » أن وفد نجران أتوا النبي فقالوا : ما تقول في عيسي؟ فقال : هو روح الله ، وكلمته ، وعبد الله ، ورسوله ، قالوا له : هل لك أن نلاعنك أنه ليس كذلك؟ قال : وذاك أحب إليكم؟ قالوا : نعم . قال : فإذا شئتم . فجاء وجمع ولده الحسن والحسين ، فقال رئيسهم : لا تلاعنوا هذا الرجل فوالله لئن لاعنتموه ليخسفن بأحد الفريقين فجاؤوا فقالوا : يا أبا القاسم إنما أراد أن يلاعنك سفهاؤنا ، وإنا نحب أن تعفينا . قال قد أعفيتكم ثم قال : إن العذاب قد أظل نجران.

Group of people of “Najran” went to prophet [PBUH] and said: what do you say about “Isa”? he’s the soul, thrall and the messenger of god, they said: we’re ready to perform “Mubahilah” with you that he’s like this. Prophet [PBUH]: I’m ready to do that, he prepared his two grandchildren “Hasan” and “Hussein” [AS] to perform “Mubahalah”, but they gave up.

 Al-Dur al-Manthr, v 2, p 230

Except above narratives , Allamah “Haskani” has quoted some other narratives with the same content with little changes but because content is the same we avoid translating them:

وأخرج أبو النعيم في الدلائل من طريق الكلبي عن أبي صالح عن ابن عباس أن وفد نجران من النصاري قدموا علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم وهم أربعة عشر رجلا من أشرافهم منهم السيد وهو الكبير والعاقب وهو الذي يكون بعده وصاحب رأيهم فقال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم لهما : أسلما قالا : أسلمنا قال : ما أسلمتما قالا : بلي قد أسلمنا قبلك قال : كذبتما يمنعكم من الإسلام ثلاث فيكما : عبادتكما الصليب وأكلكما الخنزير وزعمكما أن لله ولدا ونزل ) إن مثل عيسي عند الله كمثل آدم خلقه من تراب ( الآية) فلما قرأها عليهم قالوا : ما نعرف ما تقول ونزل ) فمن حاجك فيه من بعد ما جاءك من العلم ( يقول : من جادلك في أمر عيسي من بعد ما جاءك من العلم من القرآن ) فقل تعالوا ( إلي قوله ) ثم نبتهل ( يقول : نجتهد في الدعاء أن الذي جاء به محمد هو الحق وأن الذي يقولون هو الباطل فقال لهم : إن الله قد أمرني إن لم تقبلواهذا أن أباهلكم فقالوا : يا أبا القاسم بل نرجع فننظر في أمرنا ثم نأتيك فخلا بعضهم ببعض وتصادقوا فيما بينهم قال السيد للعاقب : قد والله علمتم أن الرجل نبي مرسل ولئن لاعنتموه إنه ليستأصلكم وما لاعن قوم قط نبيا فبقي كبيرهم ولا نبت صغيرهم فإن أنتم لم تتبعوه وأبيتم إلا إلف دينكم فوادعوه وارجعوا إلي بلادكم وقد كان رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم خرج ومعه علي والحسن والحسين وفاطمة فقال رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم : إن أنا دعوت فأمنوا أنتم فأبوا أن يلاعنوه وصالحوه علي الجزية

Al-Durr al-Manthur, v 2, p 231, 232

وأخرج أبو نعيم في الدلائل من طريق عطاء والضحاك عن ابن عباس أن ثمانية من أساقف العرب من أهل نجران قدموا علي رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم منهم العاقب والسيد فأنزل الله ) فقل تعالوا ندع أبناءنا ( إلي قوله ) ثم نبتهل ( يريد ندع الله باللعنة علي الكاذب فقالوا : أخرنا ثلاثة أيام فذهبوا إلي بني قريظة والنضير وبني قينقاع فاستشاروهم فأشاروا عليهم أن يصالحوه ولا يلاعنوه وهو النبي الذي نجده في التوراة فصالحوا النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم علي ألف حلة في صفر وألف في رجب ودراهم.

Al-Durr al-Manthur, v 2, p 232

أخرج مسلم والترمذي وابن المنذر والحاكم والبيهقي في سننه عن سعد بن أبي وقاص قال : « لما نزلت هذه الآية { فقل تعالوا ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم } دعا رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم علياً ، وفاطمة ، وحسناً ، وحسيناً ، فقال » اللهم هؤلاء أهلي « » .

Al-Durr al-Manthur, v 2, p 232

وأخرج ابن جرير عن غلباء بن أحمر اليشكري قال « لما نزلت هذه الآية { فقل تعالوا ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم . . . } الآية . أرسل رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم إلي علي ، وفاطمة ، وابنيهما الحسن ، والحسين ، ودعا اليهود ليلاعنهم فقال شاب من اليهود : ويحكم أليس عهدكم بالأمس إخوانكم الذين مسخوا قردة وخنازير؟ لا تلاعنوا . فانتهوا »

Al-Durr al-Manthur, v 2, p 232

Ali [AS] is the soul of prophet [PBUH]

One of verses that we can use it to prove Ali’s [AS] superiority than all humans even prophets except Islam prophet [PBUH] is “Mubahilah” verse, because god introduces “Ali” [AS] the soul of prophet [PBUH], and it’s used of the narratives and the talks of historians and narrators that the meaning of “انفسنا” is “Ali” [AS].

قال جابر: (أنفسنا وأنفسكم) رسول اللّه وعلي بن أبي طالب (وأبنائنا) الحسن والحسين (ونسائنا) فاطمة. وهكذا رواه الحاكم في مستدركه... ثمّ قال: صحيح علي شرط مسلم ولم يخرجاه.

“Jaber” has said that the meanings of (أنفسنا وأنفسكم) are Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] and Ali [AS] and the meaning of (أبنائنا) is “Hasan” and “Hussein” [AS] and (نسائنا) means “Fatimah” [AS].

Tafsir, ibn kathir, v 1 p 379 ,Shukani,  Fath Al-qadir v 1, p 348

“Zemakhshari” says:

وفيه دليل لا شئ أقوي منه علي فضل أصحاب الكساء عليهم السلام.

This verse is the strongest and most valid reason for the superiority of “Kasa’” [cloak] companions.

Al-Kashif, v 1, p 370

“Ibn Hajar Heithami” says:

وأخرج الدارقطني أن عليا قال للستة الذين جعل عمر الأمر شوري بينهم كلاما طويلا من جملته أنشدكم بالله هل فيكم أحد قال له رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم ( يا علي أنت قسيم الجنة والنار يوم القيامة غيري قالوا اللهم لا ).

“Dar Qatni” has quoted: on the day of council, “Ali [AS] performed formula with attendees and said: swear to god, is there any one here who is closer to prophet [PBUH] than me in terms of relativity? Is there anyone except me whom prophet [PBUH] has put him his soul and his sons as his own children and his wife superior than his own spouse? They said: no there’s not.

“Jabir Ibn Abdullah” says: we were with prophet [PBUH] that Ali [AS] arrived. Prophet said: my brother has come. Then he touched “Ka’aba” and said: swear to god, it’s him and his Shiites who are prosperous on the day of Resurrection, he’s the first one of you who believed and is the most staunch of you to god’s promise, and is the most righteous of you amongst peasant and is the most cherished of you in the sight of god. Then this verse was sent:

ان الذين آمنوا وعملوا الصالحات أولئك هم خير البرية

Kefayat Al-Talib, 118

Who/what is “Al-Bariyyah” [the best creature]?

You saw some of narratives about “Al-Bariyyah” verse that introduced the instance of “Best creature” and it must be enough for those seeking the truth and these narratives decry falsifiers and ill-wishers of Ali [AS] and his children and from another side these narratives prove the superiority of Ali [AS] over prophets except prophet Muhammad [PBUH] and prophecy position, because «خير البريه means “the best creature” and is a trait that includes the beginning of creation to the end and it’s an honor for Ali [AS].

Ali’s [AS] superior face in Hadith:

Imagining divine face of commander of faithful [AS] and depicting his behavioral, practical and verbal beauties from amongst Thousands of talks of prophet [PBUH] require creating the books, however elders, in the past and present, have written books in this regard, but prophet’s [PBUH] narratives about the personality of virtues of Ali [AS] are a lot. Amongst all these narrative, following narrative has been quoted by supporters and opponents and is a valid document for our claim and in fact it’s the complement for former verses and indicates Ali’s [AS] superiority over all prophets except prophet Muhammad [PBUH]:

«من أراد أن يري آدم في علمه ، ونوحاً في طاعته ، وإبراهيم في خلته ، وموسي في هيبته ، وعيسي في صفوته ، فلينظر إلي علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه »

Anyone who wants to see the knowledge of “Adam” , the tolerance of “Noah”, the fame of “Abraham” and the greatness of “Muses”, should look at Ali [AS].

قوله صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم : ( من أراد أن ينظر إلي نوح في عزمه ، والي آدم في علمه ، والي إبراهيم في حلمه ، والي موسي في فطنته ، والي عيسي في زهده ، فلينظر إلي علي بن أبي طالب ) . أخرجه البيهقي في صحيحه ، والإمام أحمد بن حنبل في مسنده ).

This narrative has been quoted by “Beihaqi” and “Ahmad Ibn Hanbal” two of famous narrators and writers, the owner of famous works, but unfortunately this narrative isn’t seen in new editions, it shows that this Hadith has been distorted just like other historical quotations regarding Ali’s [AS] virtues.

“Ibn Abi Al-Hadid” has admitted to the virtues of Ali [AS] and has quoted this Hadith without any doubt.

الخبر الرابع : من أراد أن ينظر إلي نوح في عزمه ، وإلي آدم في علمه ، وإلي إبراهيم في حلمه ، وإلي موسي في فطنته ، وإلي عيسي في زهده ، فلينظر إلي علي بن أبي طالب ' .

رواه أحمد بن حنبل في المسند ، ورواه أحمد البيهقي في صحيحه .

The exegete of Nahj Al-Balaghah, v 9, p 100

“Fakhr Razi” says:

ويؤيد الاستدلال بهذه الآية ، الحديث المقبول عند الموافق والمخالف ، وهو قوله عليه السلام : ( من أراد أن يري آدم في علمه ، ونوحاً في طاعته ، وإبراهيم في خلته ، وموسي في هيبته ، وعيسي في صفوته ، فلينظر إلي علي بن أبي طالب رضي الله عنه ) فالحديث دل علي أنه اجتمع فيه ما كان متفرقاً فيهم ، وذلك يدل علي أن علياً رضي الله عنه أفضل من جميع الأنبياء سوي محمد صلي الله عليه وسلم...

There’s a narrative that confirms reasoning to this verse to prove Ali’s [AS] superiority] and both supporters and opponents accept it and that narrative is from prophet [PBUH] who said: “Anyone who wants to see the knowledge of “Adam” , the tolerance of “Noah”, the fame of “Abraham” and the greatness of “Muses”, should look at Ali [AS]”. Because this Hadith implies that all these traits exist in these prophets separately, exist in Ali [AS] and it shows that Ali [AS] is better than all prophets [AS] except Prophet Muhammad [PBUH].

Al-Tafsi Al-Kabir, v 8, p 72

“Abu Hayyan Andolusi” the owner of Tafsi book “ Al-Bahr Al-Muhit” has denied and says It’s been forged, Of course the view of such guys is quite clear, because the topic of this Hadith is citing the virtues of Ali [AS] from prophet [PBUH] that’s why they say that it’s been forged. He says:

وأما الحديث الذي استدل به فموضوع لا أصل له . وهذه النزغة التي ذهب إليها هذا الحمصي من كون علي أفضل من الأنبياء عليهم السلام سوي محمد صلي الله عليه وسلم ) ، وتلقفها بعض من ينتحل كلام الصوفية ، ووسع المجال فيها ، فزعم أن الولي أفضل من النبي...هذه المقالة مخالفة لمقالات أهل الإسلام . نعوذ بالله من ذلك...

The Hadith of Ali’s [AS] superiority over prophets [AS] has been forged…… the thought of lord’s superiority over prophet is in contradictory with Islamic beliefs.

Tafsir “Al-Bahr Al-Muhit”, v 2, p 504

Late “Mara’shi” The author of the book “Sharh ehqaq Al-Haqq” has made throughout research amongst Sunni books and extracted this Hadith from Sunni narrative resources:

الحديث الرابع والعشرون ( من أراد أن ينظر إلي آدم ، إلي نوح ، إلي إبراهيم ، إلي موسي ، إلي عيسي ، فلينظر إلي علي بن أبي طالب عليه السلام ) رواه جماعة من أعلام العامة في كتبهم : منهم العلامة المولوي ولي الله اللكنهوئي في ( مرآة المؤمنين في مناقب أهل بيت سيد المرسلين ) ( ص 35 ) قال : ( في حديث ) قال صلي الله عليه وسلم : من أراد أن ينظر إلي آدم في علمه وإلي نوح في تقواه وإلي إبراهيم في حلمه وإلي موسي في هيبته وإلي عيسي في عبادته فلينظر إلي علي بن أبي طالب .

Anyone who wants to see the knowledge of “Adam” , the piety of “Noah”, the fame of “Abraham” and the greatness of “Muses” and the worshiping of “Isa”, should look at Ali [AS].

Then late “Mara’shi” mentions to Sunni resources which have quoted this narrative:

Allamah “Shahab Al-DDin Ahmad Husseini shafi’I”, “Tuzih Al-Dalil”, p 232, Allamah Abu Hafs Umar ibn Muhammad, “Al-Vasilah”, p 168, Allamah Jamal Al-DDin Muhammad ibn Mukram Ansari, “the history of Damascus”, v 17, p 148, and….

Sharh Ehqaq Al-Haqq, late Mara’shi, v 22, p 296-300

Allamah “Amini” the author of the lasting and valuable work named “Al-Ghadir” quotes this hadith from different resources of Sunni such as: “musnad Ahmad” and “Sahabis’ virtues” from “Beihaqi” and “Manaqib” from Kharazmi”, and proves Ali’s [AS] superiority and stamps of approval on the validity of this Hadith.

1 - أخرج إمام الحنابلة أحمد عن عبد الرزاق بإسناده المذكور بلفظ : من أراد أن ينظر إلي آدم في علمه ، وإلي نوح في فهمه ، وإلي إبراهيم في خلقه ، وإلي موسي في مناجاته ، وإلي عيسي في سنته ، وإلي محمد في تمامه وكماله ، فلينظر إلي هذا الرجل المقبل . فتطاول الناس فإذا هم بعلي بن أبي طالب كأنما ينقلع من صبب ، و ينحط من جبل.

And as well as some of Sunni’s figures have quoted this narrative in their books with similar words and sometimes with little change such as: “Abu-Bakr Ahmad ibn Hasan Beihaqi” in “Sahabis’ virtues” and “Kharazmi Maliki” in “Al-Manaqib” p 49, “Abu Salim Kamal Al-DDin Muhammad ibn Shafi’I” in “Matalib Al-Rasool”, “Ezzu Al-DDin ibn Abi Al-Hadid” in “interpretation of Nahj Al-Balagha”,v 2 p 236, Hafiz Abu Abdullah Ganji Shafi’I, in “ Kefayat Al-Talib” p 45, “Ibn Sabbagh Maliki” in “Al-fusool Al-Muhimmah”, v p 21, “Sayed Mahmud Alusi”, and Sayed Ahmad Qadin Khani, in “Hedayat Al-Martab” p 146

Al-Allamah “Amini”, Al-Ghadi, v 30, p 355-360

Result and Summery:

God’s attestation to the purification of Prophet’s [PBUH] dynasty specially commander of faithful [AS] And getting the title of Prophet’s soul which is the best spiritual position for Ali [AS] and the famous Hadith of “Ashbah” in which superb and high traits of prophets [AS] like: “Adam”, “Noah”, “Muses”, “Isa”, “Abraham” [AS]and …  are written and commander of faithful [AS] is introduced as the one who is the sign of these grate traits, all these privileges prove Ali’s [AS] superiority over all prophets [AS] except prophet Muhammad [PBUH].



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