Saturday 10 December 2016
Is the use of اعيذ بيا آهيا شراهيا ever considered polytheism?
ID: 167 Publish Date: 23 January 2016 - 13:04 Count Views: 271
Question & Answer » Theology
Is the use of اعيذ بيا آهيا شراهيا ever considered polytheism?

Inquirer: Mansour

 

Elaboration of the question:

One of the experts of a Wahhabi channel has claimed that Shias blaspheme the Holy Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him).  He picked out a number of words as follows from Hirz Abu Dujana Prayer as evidence to prove his claim.

...وأعيذه من شر الشياطين ، ومن شر كل غول وغولة ، وساحر وساحرة وساكن وساكنه ، وتابع وتابعة ، ومن شرهم وشر آبائهم وأمهاتهم ، ومن شر الطيارات . وأعيذه بيا آهيا شراهيا ، وأعيذ صاحب كتابي هذا من شر الدياهش والأبالس

Then he claimed that the words آهيا شراهيا do by no means describe God and refer to someone else other than God; therefore, it is deemed polytheism. Another term that he pointed his finger at was طيارات. “What does this word mean?”, he asked sarcastically. “It means pilots, I guess!”, answered he. Accordingly, he took advantage of these words as an excuse to insult Shias.

Download the clip of the Wahhabi expert.

 

Answer:

In response to the question above, numerous answers can be given several of which are to be provided below in brief.

1. The narrative’s chain of transmission is weak.

Hirz Abu Dujana with all its words lacks a reliable chain of transmission in neither of the Shia sources.  Any narrative which fails to have a reliable chain of transmission is not at all worth being used as evidence especially in ideological discussions to prove the infidelity of an individual. Shia and Sunni scholars unanimously have consensus that branding someone as polytheist needs to have a definite justification. Since this narrative lacks the required specification, it can not in any way help Wahhabis to achieve their objective.

2. The monotheistic words of this narrative:

Many words can be detected from the abovementioned narrative which evidently attribute to God’s uniqueness. For instance,

...ولا غالب إلا الله ، ولا أحد سوى الله ، ولا أحد مثل الله...

...أنه لا إله إلا الله الغالب الذي لا يغلبه شئ...

...فسيكفيكهم الله وهو السميع العليم...

...بالله الذي لا إله إلا هو رب العرش العظيم...

Now we ask the same Wahhabi expert how he could turn a blind eye to the words above but only refer to a phrase the meaning of which was not clear to him.

3. The content of the narrative indicates that even the sentence which was singled out was aimed at describing God.

From the beginning up to this very sentence, the Hirz which includes «اعيذ»   is replete with the names of God. Words specifically describing God are what is seen even following the sentence. It is clear evidence that all sentences even آهيا شراهيا cited in the narrative are names of God.

وأعيذه بالاسم المكتوب في التوراة والإنجيل ، وبالاسم الذي هو مكتوب في الزبور ، وبالاسم الذي هو مكتوب في الفرقان . وأعيذه بالاسم الذي حمل به عرش بلقيس إلى سليمان... وبالاسم الذي نزل به جبرئيل عليه السلام إلى محمد ص ...وبالأسماء الثمانية المكتوبة في قلب الشمس وبالاسم الذي يسير به السحاب الثقال وبالاسم الذي يسبح الرعد بحمده... وبالاسم الذي تجلى الرب عز وجل لموسى... بالاسم الذي كتب على ورق الزيتون وألقى في النار فلم يحترق ، وبالاسم الذي يمشي به الخضر عليه السلام على الماء فلم تبتل قدماه ، وبالاسم الذي نطق به عيسى عليه السلام في المهد... وأعيذه بالاسم الذي نجا به يوسف عليه السلام من الجب ، وبالاسم الذي نجا به يونس عليه السلام من الظلمة ، وبالاسم الذي فلق به البحر لموسى... وأعيذه بيا آهيا شراهيا... وأعيذه بما استعاذ به آدم عليه السلام أبو البشر وشيثوهابيل وإدريس ونوح ولوط وإبراهيم و... بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم الجليل الجميل المحسن الفعال لما يريد . وأعيذه بالله...

4. The meanings of these words can be looked up in a dictionary. According to lexiconists, the word in discussion is a name of God. Now, we refer to the views of a number of lexiconists in this regard.

1. Khalil Ibn Ahmad Farahidi believes that

هيا شَرَاهِيا، بالعبرانية: يا حي يا قيوم

The words يا حى و يا قيوم are being translated as هيا شراهيا in Hebrew.

Kitab al-‘Ayn, vol. 3, p. 401, Farahidi, Khalil Ibn Ahmad, in nine volumes, Hijrat publications, Qom, the second edition, 1409 AH.

2. According to Ibn Manzur,

و قولُهم: هَيا شَراهِيا، معناه يا حيُّ يا قيُّومُ بالعِبْرانِيَّةِ بعضهم يقول آهيا شراهيا مثل عاهيا و كل ذلك تصحيف و تحريف و إنما هو إهيا بكسر الهمزة و سكون الهاء و أشر بالتحريك و سكون الراء و هو اسم من أسماء الله جل ذكره، و معنى إهيا أشر إهيا الأَزلي الذي لم يزل

 

هيا شراهيا is the Hebraic translation of يا حى و يا قيوم. Some figures are of this opinion that the phrase has been distorted and that its original form has been إهْياأشر which is a name of God and denotes pre-eternal.

Ibn Manzur, Mohammad Ibn Mukarram, Lisan al-‘Arab, vol. 13, p. 506, 15 volumes, Dar al-Fekr Lil Tana’at wa al-Nashr wa al-Towzi’, Dar Sadir, Beirut, the third edition, 1414 AH.

3. What Zubaydi has said is as follows,

قَوْلُهم في الدُّعاءِ: إِهْيَا، بكسْرِ الهَمْزةِ، و أَشَرْ إِهْيَا بفتْحِ الهَمْزةِ و الشِّينِ‏ و سكونِ الرّاءِ، كلمةٌ يُونانِيَّةٌ أَو سرْيانِيَّةٌ أَو عبْرانِيَّةٌ، و هذا أَصحّ، أَي الأَزَليُّ الذي لم يَزَلْ... و قيلَ: هيَا شَراهِيا، و كأنَّه اخْتِصارٌ منه، أَي يا حيُّ يا قَيُّومُ ... قالَ أَبو حاتِمٍ: أَظنُّ أَصْلُه يا هَيا شرَاهِيا

The word إهياأشَرْ in the prayer which originally comes from the Greek language or more probably from Hebrew conveys the meaning of an eternal entity. Some individuals believe that هيا شراهيا is the contracted form of that word and denotes يا حى يا قيوم.... According to Abu Hatam the original form of the term had been يا هيا شراهيا .

Husseini Zubaydi, Mohammad Morteza, Taj al-‘Arus min Jawahir al-Qamus, vol. 19, p. 52, 20 volumes, Dar al-Fekr, Beirut, the first edition, 1414 AH.

5. Sunni scholars have explained that هيا شراهيا is one of the greatest names of God.

With a reliable chain of transmission, Sunni scholars have said that هيا شراهيا is one of the greatest names of God in Hebrew which Asif Ibn Barkhiya already used it. God had told Hazrat Moses (AS) to use the same word when going to pharaoh.


1- حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو مُعَاوِيَةَ (محمد بن خازم)، عَنِ الْأَعْمَشِ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ مُرَّةَ، عَنْ أَبِي عُبَيْدَةَ (عبد الله بن زمعة بن الأسود بن المطلب)، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ: لَمَّا بُعِثَ مُوسَى إِلَى فِرْعَوْنَ، قَالَ: " رَبِّ أَيَّ شَيْءٍ أَقُولُ "؟، قَالَ: قُلْ: " هَيَا شَرَاهَيَا "، قَالَ الأَعْمَشُ: تَفْسِيرُ ذَلِكَ: الْحَيُّ قَبْلَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ، وَالْحَيُّ بَعْدَ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ.

When Hazrat Moses (AS) was ordered to go to Pharaoh, he asked God, “O Lord! What should I say?” God told him in response to say هيا شراهيا. A’mash has interpreted the phrase as, ‘God has been alive before every creature’s creation and will also remain alive after every creature’s death’.

Ibn Abi Shaybat al-Kufi, Abdullah Ibn Mohammad (died in 235 AH), al-Kitab al-Musnaf fi al-Ahadith wa al-Athar, vol. 15, p. 353, researched by Kamal Yusuf al-Hut, published by Maktab al-Rushd, Riyadh, the first edition, 1409 AH. 


2-وقال ابن أبي حاتم حدثنا أبي حدثنا علي بن محمد الطنافسي حدثنا أبو معاوية عن الأعمش عن عمرو بن مرة عن أبي عبيدة عن عبد الله قال لما بعث الله عز وجل موسى إلى فرعون فقال رب أي شيء أقول قال قل هيا شراهيا قال الأعمش فسر ذلك أنا الحي قبل كل شيء والحي بعد كل شيء إسناده جيد وشيء غريب

Ibn Kathir al-Dameshqi, Abu al-Fida ISma’il Ibn ‘Umar al-Qarashi (died in 774 AH), Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim, vol.5, p. 296, published by Dar al-Fekr, Beirut, 1401 AH.


3- قالَ الَّذي عِنْدَهُ عِلْمٌ مِنَ الْكِتابِ أَنَا آتيكَ بِهِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَرْتَدَّ إِلَيْكَ طَرْفُكَ» أكثر المفسرين على أن الذي عنده علم من الكتاب آصف بن برخيا وهو من بني إسرائيل وكان صديقا يحفظ اسم الله الأعظم الذي إذا سئل به أعطى وإذا دعى به أجاب وقالت عائشة رضي الله عنها قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم ) إن اسم الله الأعظم الذي دعا به آصف بن برخيا يا حي يا قيوم ) قيل : وهو بلسانهم أهيا شراهيا

The man who has availed himself of knowledge said, “I can bring him to you in a twinkling of an eye”. According to Sunni scholars, Asif Ibn Barkhiya is implied to be the man who has availed himself of knowledge. He was an honest man from Bani Israel (children of Israel). He knew the greatest name of God and his prayers were all fulfilled any time he called upon God.

‘Ayishah has quoted the Holy Prophet (Peace Be upon Him) as stating that the greatest name that Asif Ibn Barkhiya used to call upon God with was يا حى يا قيوم. It has the same meaning of آهيا شراهيا in his own language.

Al-Ansari al-Qurtabi, Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Abi BAkr Ibn Farah (died in 671 AH), al-Jami’ Li Ahkam al-Qur’an, vol. 13, p. 204, published by Dar al-Sha’b,Cairo.


علم للتفخيم والرمز إلى أنه علم غير معهود قيل : كان ذلك العلم باسم الله تعالى الأعظم الذي إذا سئل به أجاب وقد دعا ذلك العالم به فحصل غرضه وهو ياحي يا قيوم وقيل يا ذا الجلال والاكرام وقيل الله الرحمن وقيل : هو بالعبرانية آهيا شراهيا.

Al-Alusi al-Baghdadi al-Hanafi, Abu al-Fadl Shahab al-Din al-Sayyid Mahmoud Ibn Abdullah (died in 1270 AH), Ruh al-Ma’ani fi Tafsir al-Qur’an al-‘Azim wa al-Sab’ al-Mathani, vol. 19, p. 204, published by Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi, Beirut.

 

6. The views of Shia and Sunni scholars about the words of آهيا شراهيا

A. It is one of the greatest names of God:

1. While explaining the conditions of the fulfillment of a prayer in his book ‘Idda al-Da’i, Ibn Fahd has said, “The third condition to have a prayer fulfilled is that it needs to include one of the greatest names of God recommended in some narratives and Quranic. The ending verses of the chapter of The Cow and The Exile are some examples.” Then he added the story of Solomon and the how of bringing the Seat of the Belqais.

... قال الذي عنده علم من الكتاب وهو آصف بن برخيا ، وكان وزير سليمان وابن أخته ، وكان صديقا يعرف الاسم الأعظم الذي إذا دعى به أجاب : انا آتيك به قبل ان يرتد إليك طرفك ... فخر آصف ساجدا ودعا باسم الله الأعظم فغار عرشها تحت الأرض حتى نبع عند كرسي سليمان ... فقيل : ان ذلك الاسم هو الله ، والذي يليه الرحمن . وقيل : هو يا حي يا قيوم بالعبرانية : آهيا شراهيا . وقيل : هو يا ذا الجلال والاكرام . وقيل : يا الهنا واله كل شئ الها واحدا لا إله إلا أنت

‘Asif prostrated and called upon God with His greatest name. The Seat of Belqais went deep into the ground before coming up onto the ground right next to the Seat of Solomon. Some figures believe that that the greatest name was هوالله. According to some others it was   الرحمن and a third group believed that it was يا حى و يا قيوم which is being translated as آهيا شراهيا in Hebrew.

‘Idda al-Da’I Ibn Fahd (died in 841), edited by Ahmad al-Mowahedi al-Qomi, published by Maktabat Wojdani, Qom, Basair al-Darajat, p. 208.

2. In the 31st chapter of his book, al-Misbah, Kaf’ami has cited a number of scholars about the greatest name of God. According to him,

الخامس؛ انه يا حي يا قيوم وبالعبرانية اهيا شراهيا ... ذكرها الطبرسي في مجمع البيان...

In the fifth quotation, the greatest name is ياحى و يا قيوم which is translated as اهيا شراهيا  in Hebrew.

Misbah Kaf’ami (died in 905 AH), p. 306, the third edition, 1983 AD-1403 AH, published by Muassissat al-A’lami Lil Matbu’at, Beirut.

3. In Bahar al-Anwar, Allame Majlisi cited different scholars about the greatest name of God which Asif Ibn Barkhiya was aware of. One of the citations is as follows,

...وقيل : هو " يا حي يا قيوم " وبالعبرانية " اهيا شراهيا

A researcher of the book has pointed out in the footnote that its correct form has been in fact إهيه أشر إهيه in which إهيه denotes necessarily existent.

Bahar, vol. 14, p. 123, died in 1111 AH, researched by ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Rabbani al-Shirazi, the second edition, 1403 AH-1983 AD; published by Muassisat al-Wafat, Beirut, Lebanon, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi

B. It is one of God’s names:

1. It has been cited in narratives that when Hazrat Abraham (AS) was being thrown into fire, he murmured a prayer. It was that prayer which made the fire cool and peaceful for him. The following is a part of prayer which contains the same words in discussion.

إبراهيم عليه السلام دعا بهذا الدعاء لما ألقي في النار فجعلها الله تعالى عليه بردا وسلاما بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم اللهم إني أسئلك ( باسمك ) يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله أنت المرهوب رهب منك جميع خلقك يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله أنت الرفيع في عرشك فوق سبع سماواتك وأنت المظل على كل شئ ولا يظل شئ عليك يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله أعظم من كل شئ فلا يصف أحد عظمتك يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا نور النور قد استضاء بنورك أهل سماواتك وارضيك يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله لا اله الا أنت تعاليت ان يكون لك شريك وتكبرت ان يكون لك ضد يا نور النور يا نور كل نور لا خامد لنورك يا مليك كل مليك يفنى غيرك يا نور النور يا من ملا أركان السماوات و الأرض بعظمته يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا هو يا هو يا من ليس كهو الا هو أغثني أغثني الساعة الساعة يا من امره كلمح البصر أو هو أقرب اهيا شراهيا اذوناى اصباوؤت ال شداى يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا الله يا رباه يا رباه يا رباه يا غاية منتهاه ورغبتاه

Misbah Kaf’ami (died in 905 AH), p. 306, the third edition, 1983 AD-1403 AH, published by Muassissat al-A’lami Lil Matbu’at, Beirut.

2. In his book, Bahar al-Anwar, Allame Majlisi has cited the book, Majmu’ al-Da’awat which has quoted Ahl al-Bayt, the Holy Prophet’s household (Peace Be Upon Them) as stating, “If you wish to have a dream about a specific matter, write down on your right palm the chapters of The Opening, Mankind, The Dawn, Sincerity and The Fate as well as Ayat al-Kursi (the ending verses of the chapter of The Cow) five times. Then recite the following while you are clean.

آهيا شراهيا أرني في منامي كذا وكذا

He went on saying

بيان : المضبوط في نسخ الدعاء آهيا شراهيا بمد الألف ثم الهاء المكسورة ثم الياء المشددة المفتوحة ، وفي القاموس وأهيا شراهيا بفتح الهمزة والشين يونانية أي الأزلي الذي لم يزل ، والناس يغلطون ويقولون آهيا شراهيا ، وهو خطأ على ما يزعمه أحبار اليهود انتهى

The correct pronunciation of the word in prayer books is as آهِيَّاً شراهيا but it is pronounced as أَهياً شَراهيا in dictionaries. It is originally a Greek word, meaning an eternal entity. People read it as آهيا شراهيا by mistake.

Bahar, vol. 88, pp. 379-380, died in 1111 AH, researched by ‘Abd al-Rahim al-Rabbani al-Shirazi, the second edition, 1403 AH-1983 AD; published by Muassisat al-Wafat, Beirut, Lebanon, Dar Ihya al-Turath al-‘Arabi

3. In Makarim al-Akhlaq, the same word has been mentioned in Hirz Amir al-Momenin (AS). But it has a subtle difference from the former form referred to as يا هيّا شراهيا.

Makarim al-Akhlaq, Tabarsi, Hassan Ibn Fadl, translated by Ibrahim Mir Baqeri, vol. 2, p. 332, two volumes, Farahani, Tehran, the second edition, 1365 solar year.

7. The word اهيا اشراهيا has been exactly reflected in Sunni prayer books.

1. According to the book Shafa al-Asqam, براى مسان مجرب است

اعوذ بالله من الشيطان الرجيم بسم الله الحمن الرحيم –يا بدوح يا غفور انه من سليمان بن داوود عليهماالسلام اهيا اشراهيا-في السفر خالد او باسمه دركات بعون الله تعالي في كل شفاء و عليهم يا حفيظ يا الله يا الله يا الله برحمتك يا ارحم الراحمين

2. It has also added that as soon as a woman goes into labor, the following words can be written on a piece of paper and then fastened around her left arm in order to help her pain relieve right away.

و القت ما فيها و تخلت و اذنت لربه و حقت اهيا اشراهيا

Shafa al-Asqam wa al-Ahzan ma’a Damima Jadida., Tasnif Hazrat Allame Molana Mohammad Omar Sarbazi, Ishaqiyya publication,Jona Markit, Karachi, pp. 116 & 25, the twelfth edition, 1426 AH.

8. Similar prayers can be found in Sunni sources:

There are a number of Hirzes with similar contents and sometimes with apparently meaningless content in Sunni prayer books.

Can you ever call Mohammad Omar Sarbazi an infidel only because of the quotation of such words in his book?

Shafa al-Asqam wa al-Ahzan is the reference and only the page numbers are to be mentioned. For example for hemorrhoids, the following words are recommended to be read.

كركرني بربروني...

 

 p. 25

For any other problems

«...ققهقر اقول بقرقار مع قرقش في قيقوش بحق قلانس قطب القمقام فقر قريري ...فيا قيوم بقوقمها في قيقات بقفقفه

P. 29

For گردين

«...هودرس كودس...»

p. 72

For washing tapeworms out of animals’ bodies,

...بوس..دوي...ابوس...اندروس...

p. 73

For taking lavas out of eyes, etc.,

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم حوش سوس دوس ذريانوس

p. 73

For pain in spleen,

...طلطيش طلطيش يقوش يقوش هيطيط هيطيط هيطيط

p. 76

For one bitten by a snake,

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم گل گلين گلين پل پل كپوچ

p. 78

For one bitten by a scorpion,

شجنيه قرنيه...كازم كازم و برازم ...شفنامرا سامرا هوداهي

p. 78

For the arrest of a thief,

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم عليقه مليقه تليقه نليقه

p. 79

In order to have one’s baby be born easily and quickly, one can write موطا مالك on her right hand.

p. 82

If one writes آدم on his right thigh and حوا on his left thigh, he will not, God willing, have seminal emission while asleep.

p. 85

To cool down a person, the following words can be helpful.

اهطم فشد..جزكس قثظ...دحل هرخغ...بوين صفض

p. 87

For hemorrhoids,

ادرا دادا نانها ما اسمت سميري سواها بواها سامري سمرونا اندونا.

p. 98

To lower a fever,

كوفا كوفا كوفا...لوفا لوفا لوفا...احاجا احاجا احاجا احاجا

p. 107

For keeping away the mice,

ياكح ياكح-ياكح ياكح

p. 120

For having someone imprisoned,

بمليخا-مكثلمينا مشكزتوس و بركوسو مزنوس كسنطيطوس قطمير

p. 121

For relieving the inflammation of breasts,

بسم الله تربه ارضنا بريقه بعضنا

To cast away the jinni’s spell,

فهوش قرشت برما برما

p. 146

and so on and so forth.

9. Sacrilegious words in Sunni books:

In case the use of the words آهيا شراهيا is deemed polytheism, what about the numerous words which can be found in your books, especially in prayer books? What response do you have to provide?

Several examples are as below.

The followings are also taken out of the same book, Shafa al-Ahzan wa al-Asqam, therefore only page numbers are to be shown.

يا دهر و يا ديهور يا ديهار

p. 13

سبحانك لا اله الا انت خلقتنا من النار

p. 14

In order to avoid the frequent seminal emission while asleep, write the word عمر on your chest with your index finger.

p. 128

It is also mentioned on p. 88 that براى گشادن بندى ادرار آيه اى را نوشته بر عانه ببندد. On page 98, it is recommended that the words بسم الله سميرى سامرى سمرونا اندونا be written and fastened around the navel. Aren’t these comments and recommendations blasphemous?

10. طيارات is being defined as considering a bad omen not pilot which the Wahhabi expert defined it as. The word طيارات in  ومن شر الطيارات is the plural form of طائر meaningconsidering something or someone a bad omen. A similar sense can be seen in the Holy Qur’an.

قالَ طائِرُكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ تُفْتَنُون

He said, "Your omen is with Allah . Rather, you are a people being tested." (The Chapter of The Naml: 47)

They said, "We consider you a bad omen, you and those with you." But [Saleh] said, “Your omen is with Allah. Rather, you are a people being tested”.

قالُوا طائِرُكُمْ مَعَكُمْ أَ إِنْ ذُكِّرْتُمْ بَلْ أَنْتُمْ قَوْمٌ مُسْرِفُون

They said, "Your omen is with yourselves. Is it because you were reminded? Rather, you are a transgressing people." (Yaseen: 19)

 

Conclusion

According to narratives quoted by both Shias and Sunnis, the phrase of آهيا شراهيا is one of the greatest names of God in Hebrew. Therefore, there is by no means the possibility of polytheistic connotation of the words.

 

Good luck

The Group Responsible for Answers to Doubts

Hazrat Valiasr (AS) Research Institute

 
 



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