Saturday 3 December 2016
Why Shiites say the sentence ‘’ we bear witness that Ali is the Imam from Allah the Almighty’’ in their own Azan (to call to prayer) and Eqamah (special prayer prior to the main prayer)?
ID: 141 Publish Date: 20 January 2016 - 16:54 Count Views: 131
Question & Answer » Shia beliefs
Why Shiites say the sentence ‘’ we bear witness that Ali is the Imam from Allah the Almighty’’ in their own Azan (to call to prayer) and Eqamah (special prayer prior to the main prayer)?

A QUESTION BY; BAMBOO

RESPONSE

The majority of the Shiites recite this phrase in the time of Azan and at first, we should say that according to the Shiite consensus this phrase is Mostahab (religious precepts) but they are not agreed upon the main reason of this Mostahab

 The view of the Shiite scholars pertaining to the Estehbab Shahadat Thalethah ‘’ I bear witness that Ali is Imam from Allah the Almighty’’

There are two views pertaining to this case that

1, some have considered that as Mostahab part namely, such as Qonut which is part of the prayer and Mostahab as well

2, some have considered that as Mostahab but it has been considered no part of Azan it means that it is as Mostahab but it has not been regarded as one of the parts of Azan such as Salavat (greetings to the holy prophet of GOD) when you say or hear the name of the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) that the Estehbab Salavat (the religious precepts pertaining to the greetings to the holy prophet of GOD) after hearing His Holiness’ name is not exclusive to Azan namely, If someone say His Holiness’ name even in Azan then it is Mostahab to say Salavat after that and no one has criticized that

Regarding the Shahadat Thalethah the same point is accurate since it have been mentioned in the Shiite narrations that when anyone bears witness pertaining to the oneness of Allah the Almighty and the prophecy of the holy prophet of Islam then immediately he bears witness to the Velayat (Imamate) of the commander of the faithful (peace be upon him)

Saheb Javaher says that

« الا انه لا بأس بذكر ذلك لا على سبيل الجزئية عملاً بالخبر المزبور ولا يقدح مثله فى الموالاة و الترتيب، بل هى كالصلاة على محمد عند سماع اسمه... بل لو لا تسالم الأصحاب لأمكن دعوى الجزئية بناء على صلاحيّه العموم لمشروعية الخصوصية. و الامر سهل.»

جواهر الكلام 9: 87.

 

But it is not a problem to mention the third Shahadat (to bear witness) and not as a part of that rather than to act to the narration of Ehtejaj and the meaning of the third Shahadat has not a negative impact upon Movalat (the order of the prayers’ parts) and the order of Azan and Eqamah rather than it is similar to Salavat to the holy prophet of GOD and at the time when we hear His Holiness’ name in Azan and Eqamah and even if there was no consensus on that as a part of it in the view of the companions and Foqaha then it would be adequate to claim that as one of the part of Azan thus, and the scholars are merit to explain the aspects of the worship

And if we see among the religious order (Fatva) of one of the scholars that it prohibited it then the order of prohibition is concerned with the style of considering that as one of its part that means, it should not be considered as a part of Azan but only to say that with no such an intent would be adequate

 
THE NARRATION PERTAINING TO THE ALLOWANCE OF SHAHADAT THULETHAH

THE FIRST NARRATION

روى القاسم بن معاوية قال : قلت لأبي عبد الله ( عليه السلام ) : هؤلاء - أي السنة - يروون حديثا في أنه لما أسري برسول الله رأى على العرش مكتوبا : لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله أبو بكر الصديق ، فقال ( عليه السلام ) : سبحان الله ، غيّروا كل شئ حتى هذا ؟ قلت : نعم ، قال ( عليه السلام ) : إن الله عز وجل لما خلق العرش كتب عليه : لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين ، ولما خلق الله عز وجل الماء كتب في مجراه : لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين ، ولما خلق الله عز وجل الکرسي کتب على قوائمه : لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين ، وهكذا لما خلق الله عز وجل اللوح ، ولما خلق الله عز وجل جبرئيل ، ولما خلق الله عز وجل الأرضين - إلى قضايا أخرى ، فقال في الأخير : قال ( عليه السلام ) : ولما خلق الله عز وجل القمر كتب عليه : لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين ، وهو السواد الذي ترونه في القمر ، فإذا قال أحدكم : لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله ، فليقل : علي أمير المؤمنين.

الاحتجاج : 158

It has been quoted from Imam Jafar Sadeq (peace be upon him) that

I said to His Holiness that; they (The Sunnites) quote a narration that when the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) has been elevated to heaven then His Holiness saw a written text on the divine throne say that; there is no god except Allah and Mohammad is His messenger and Abu Bakr is truthful

Then His Holiness stated that; all praise to Allah, Have they changed the whole things even this? I said, Yes, then His Holiness stated that when Allah the Almighty created the throne He wrote on that; there is no god except Allah and Mohammad is His messenger and Ali is the commander of the faithful and when He created water He wrote in the place of its movement that; there is no god except Allah, and Mohammad is His messenger and Ali is the commander of the faithful and when Allah created Korsi then He wrote on its legs that; there is no god except Allah and Mohammad is His messenger and Ali is the commander of the faithful and when Allah created Loh then He did like that and when He created Gabriel  and when He created the earth and… then at the end His Holiness stated that; and when He created the moon He wrote on that; there is no god except Allah and Mohammad is His messenger and Ali is the commander of the faithful and this is the darkness in the moon then when one of you says there is no god except Allah and Mohammad is His messenger then he have to say Ali is the commander of the faithful

As it has been mentioned in the above discussion this narration is not exclusive to a certain time or place and it includes Azan as well

THE ADMISSION OF THIS CONCEPT IN THE NARRATIONS OF THE SUNNITES 

THE FIRST NARRATION

عن ابي الحمراء عن رسول الله (ص) قال: لمّا اسري بي الى السماء إذا على العرش مكتوب لا إله إلاّ الله ، محمد رسول الله ايّدته بعلي .

الدر المنثور سيوطي ج 4 ص 153، الخصائص الكبري السيوطي ج 1 ص 7، الشفاء قاضي عياض ص 138، المناقب ابن المغازلي ص 39، الرياض النضرة في مناقب العشرة المبشّرة ج 2 ص 227، درر السمطين ص120.

It has been quoted from Abi Hamra from the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) that stated that; when I was elevated to heaven it was written on the divine throne that there is no god except Allah and Mohammad is His messenger and I aided him by Ali

THE SECOND NARRATION

عن ابن مسعود عن رسول الله (ص) قال: أتاني ملك فقال:يا محمّد واسأل من ارسلنا من قبلك من رسلنا على ما بعثوا . قلت:على ما بعثوا ؟ قال:على ولايتك وولاية علي بن ابي طالب.

معرفة علوم الحديث حاكم النيسابوري ص96 .

It has been quoted from Ibn Masoud in the below of the verse 45 of the chapter Zukhruf (The Embellishment) from the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) that stated that; O Mohammad ask pertaining to the previous apostles prior to yourself that for what reason they have been appointed? I asked for what reason they have been appointed? He responded, for your prophecy and Velayat (Imamate) of Ali Ibn AbI Taleb

THE THIRD NARRATION

عن حذيفة عن رسول الله (ص) قال: لو علم الناس متى سمّي علي أمير المؤمنين ما انكروا فضله ، سمّي أمير المؤمنين وآدم بين الروح والجسد ، قال الله تعالى: وإذ أخذ ربّك من بني آدم من ظهورهم ذريّتهم واشهدهم على انفسهم الست بربّكم قالت الملائكة بلى فقال: أنا ربّكم محمد نبيّكم علي أميركم.

فردوس الاخبار ديلمي ج 3 ص 399 .

 It has been quoted from Hoayfah from the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) that stated that; if the people knew that when Ali was appointed as the commander of the faithful then they would not deny his superiority and when he became the commander of the faithful that Adam was between soul and body (the soul has not still entered his body) and Allah the Almighty stated that;

And when your Lord brought out the children of Adam from their rigid body their generation and called then witness to Himself that am I not your Lord?

They said; Yes, then He stated that; I am your creator and Mohammad is your prophet and Ali is your Imam

THE SECOND NARRATION

There is a narration that has been quoted from Sayed Nemat Allah Jazaeri from his master the late Majlesi from the holy prophet of GOD that His Holiness stated that

عن رسول الله (ص) قال: يا علي اني طلبت من الله ان يذكرك في كل مورد يذكرني فأجابني واستجاب لي .

It has been quoted from the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) that stated that; I asked Allah the Almighty to mention you in wherever He mentions me and He accepted my request and admitted that

According to this narration, in wherever the name of the holy prophet of GOD mentions (which Azan is included as well) then the name of the commander of the faithful (peace be upon him) should be mentioned as well

THE PROOF OF THIS NARRATION IN THE SUNNITE BOOKS

Of the proofs of this narration is the saying which Sunnites quotes pertaining to the commander of the faithful that the holy prophet of GOD stated to him that

ما سئلت ربّي شيئا في صلاتي إلاّ اعطاني وما سألت لنفسي شيئا إلاّ سألت لك .

مجمع الزوائد ج 9 ص 110، كنز العمّال ج 13 ص 113، الرياض النضرة ج 2 ص 213 .

I did not ask my Lord in my prayer unless He granted to mean and I did not ask anything for myself unless I asked that for you as well

And in fact, there are further narrations pertaining to this case which have not reached to us and the late Allamah Majlesi states that

وأقول : لا يبعد كون الشهادة بالولاية من الأجزاء المستحبة للأذان ، لشهادة الشيخ والعلامة والشهيد وغيرهم بورود الأخبار بها .

بحار الانوار ج 84 ص 111 .

And I say that; it is apparent that to bear witness to the Velayat was one of the Mostahab part of Azan since Shakh Tusi and Allamah Heli and Shahid and the others except them has testified that there was a narration pertaining to this case

Therefore, Shhadat Thulethah in the view of the majority of our scholars is the complementary aspect to bear witness to the prophecy of the holy prophet of Islam and it is Mostahab however, it is not one of the Azan’s section

His Holiness Ayatollah Al-Ozma Systani has mentioned to this point in the book Menhaj Al-Salehin v 1 p 191.

When has Shahadat Thalethah started and is there any specific saying in addition to the common narrations?

ABU ZAR HAS BORN WITNESS TO VELAYAT

In this case Maraqi Mesri one of the Sunnite scholars has quoted in his book Al-Salafah Fe Amr Al-Khalafah two narrations from the honored and worthwhile companion Abu Zar Qafari as well as the eminent companion Salman Farsi that

THE FIRST NARRATION PERTAINING TO ABU ZAR

أخرج أن رجلا دخل على رسول الله (صلى الله عليه واله وسلم) وقال : يا رسول الله إنّ أبا ذر يذكر في الأذان بعد الشهادة بالرسالة الشهادة بالولاية لعلى عليه السلام .

قال رسول اللّه‏(صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم ) كذلك ، أو نسيتم قولي في غدير خم : من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه )

السلافة في أمر الخلافة، ص 32.

A man came in the presence of the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) and said that; O the holy prophet of GOD, Abu Zar bears witness to the Velayat of Ali after bearing witness to your prophecy in Azan then the holy prophet of GOD stated that; that is it, have you forgotten my statements in the day of Qadir Khom that; whoever I am his Molla then Ali is his Molla

 THE SECOND NARRATION PERTAINING TO SALMAN FARSI

دخل رجل على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم ، فقال : يا رسول الله ! إني سمعت أمرا لم أسمع قبل ذلك ، فقال صلى الله عليه واله وسلم : ما هو ؟ قال : سلمان قد يشهد في أذانه بعد الشهادة بالرسالة ، الشهادة بالولاية لعلي (عليه السلام) ، قال (صلي الله عليه وآله وسلم ): سمعت خيرا.

السلافة في أمر الخلافة، ص 32.

  A man came in the presence of the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) and said that; O the holy prophet of GOD I have heard something that I have never heard before and then the holy prophet of GOD stated that; what is that? He responded that; Salman bears witness to the Velayat of Ali (peace be upon him) after bearing witness to your prophecy in Azan and then His Holiness stated that; what a nice thing you he have heard

Thus we cannot and have not to consider to bear witness to Shahadat Thulethah as a religious innovation in Azan

In order to complete this discussion we are going to present the discussion of the innovations in Azan as an appendix to the above points

 THE INNOVATION IN AZAN

 ‘’prayer is better than sleep’’ is one of the innovations of so-called His Holiness the second Qaliph Omar Ibn Khatab and this sentence was not included in Azan in the time of the holy prophet of GOD as Ibn Hazam Zaheri, Imam Malek and Qartabi have emphasized on that

A, Imam Malek says that;

اِن المؤذن جاء الي عمربن الخطاب يؤذنه لصلاة الصبح فوجده نائماً فقال: الصلاة خير من النوم فأمره أن يجعلها في نداء الصبح.

الموطّا 1: 72

When a Moazen (a person who says Azan) came to Omar in order to inform him of the time of the morning prayer and saw Omar was asleep and he shouted; the prayer is better than sleep and then Omar ordered him top say that statement in the Azan of the morning prayer from that time

B, Ibn Hazm says that

الصلاة خير من النوم، ولا نقول بهذا ايضا لأنه لم يأت عن رسول اللّه - صلي اللَّه عليه و سلّم .

المحلي 3: 161

The prayer is better than sleep is a sentence that we do not accept that since the holy prophet of GOD has not stated that

 2. GREETINGS TO YOU O AMIR

Ahnaf as they obey Imam Abu Yusef consider to add a sentence in the sections of Azan and prior to the sentence ‘’ hurry to the prayer’’  which addresses the Qaliph and say that greetings to you o Amir and the bless and mercy of GOD be upon you

A, Sarakhsi says that

قد روي عن ابي يوسف رحمة الله انه قال: لابأس بأن يخصّ الأمير بالتثويب فيأتي بابه فيقول: السلام عليك ايها الامير و رحمة الله و بركاته حي علي الصلاة مرتين حي علي الفلاح مرتين الصلاة يرحمك اللّه

المبسوط 1: 131

It has been quoted from Abu Yusef that he said; it is not a problem in order to invite the Qaliph to prayer and come to his house and say; greetings to you O Amir and the bless and mercy of GOD be upon you and then say; ‘’ hurry up to prayer and then hurry up to salvation and at the end say the prayer and the mercy of GOD be upon you

B, Halabi says that;

«عن أبي يوسف: لا أري بأساً أن يقول المؤذن السلام عليك أيها الامير و رحمة الله و بركاته حي علي الصلاة، حي علي الفلاح، الصلاة برحمك الله.» لاشتغال الأمراء بمصالح المسلمين، اي و لهذا كان مؤذن عمر بن عبدالعزيز - رضي‏الله عنه - يفعله.

السيرة الحلبية 3: 304

It has been quoted from Abu Yusef that he said; it is not a problem that Moazen says that; greetings to you O Amir and the bless and mercy of GOD be upon you and then say; ‘’ hurry up to prayer and then hurry up to salvation and at the end say the prayer and the mercy of GOD be upon you

Since the leaders are concerned with the Moslems affairs and for this reason Moazen of Omar Ibn Abd Al-Aziz has done such a thing

You can see the below sources pertaining to this case

الهداية في شرح البداية 1: 42 الجامع الصغير 1: 38- تاريخ مدينة دمشق، ج 60: 40 - شرح الزرقاني 1: 215 - تنوير الحوالك ج 1، ص 71 - الذخيره 2: 47 - مواهب الجليل 1: 431، الطبقات الكبري 5: 334 و 359.

3, the omission of the sentence ‘’hurry up to the best act’’ from Azan

A, the writer of Azva Al-Bayan says that

Ibn Omar has said that sentence in our Azan as well as Ali Ibn Al-Hossein who said that this is the initial Azan with no change and Belal has said such an Azan sometimes

B, Beyhaqi says in his own Sonan Kobra that

1842 أخبرنا أبو عبد الله الحافظ وأ بو سعيد بن أبي عمرو قالا ثنا أبو العباس محمد بن يعقوب ثنا يحيى بن أبي طالب ثنا عبد الوهاب بن عطاء ثنا مالك بن أنس عن نافع قال كان بن عمر يكبر في النداء ثلاثا ويشهد ثلاثا وكان أحيانا إذا قال حي على الفلاح قال على أثرها حي على خير العمل ورواه عبد الله بن عمر عن نافع قال كان بن عمر ربما زاد في أذانه حي على خير العمل ورواه الليث بن سعد عن نافع

Ibn Omar has said 3 times’’ Allah is great’’ in his Azan and then 3 times he has born witness and sometimes he was saying ‘’ hurry up to the salvation’’ and after that he has said ‘’ hurry up to the best act’’ and Ibn Omar sometimes has added ‘’ hurry up to the best act’’ in his Azan

1843 كما أخبرنا أبو عبد الله الحافظ أنا أبو بكر بن إسحاق ثنا بشر بن موسى ثنا موسى بن داود ثنا الليث بن سعد عن نافع قال كان بن عمر لا يؤذن في سفره وكان يقول حي على الفلاح وأحيانا يقول حي على خير العمل ورواه محمد بن سيرين عن بن عمر أنه كان يقول ذلك في أذانه وكذلك رواه نسير بن ذعلوق عن بن عمر وقال في السفر وروي ذلك عن أبي أمامة

Ibn Omar did not say Azan in his trip and he has said in his Azan; hurry up to the salvation and sometimes after that he has said;’’ hurry up to the best act’’

1844 وأخبرنا محمد بن عبد الله الحافظ أنا أبو بكر بن إسحاق ثنا بشر بن موسى ثنا موسى بن داود ثنا حاتم بن إسماعيل عن جعفر بن محمد عن أبيه أن علي بن الحسين كان يقول في أذانه إذا قال حي على الفلاح قال حي على خير العمل ويقول هو الأذان الأول

It has been quoted from Ali Ibn Al-Hossein (Imam Sajjad) that in his Azan when he said ;’’ hurry up to the salvation’’ and after that he said; hurry up to the best ace’’ and His Holiness said that; this is the initial Azan (Azan prior to deviation)

سنن البيهقي الكبري ج1/ص424

C, Ibn Abi Shaybah says that

من كان يقول في أذانه حي على خير العمل :

2239 حدثنا أبو بكر قال نا حاتم بن إسماعيل عن جعفر عن أبيه ومسلم بن أبي مريم أن علي بن حسين كان يؤذن فإذا بلغ حي على الفلاح قال حي على خير العمل ويقول هو الأذان الأول

2240 حدثنا أبو خالد عن بن عجلان عن نافع عن بن عمر أنه كان يقول في أذانه الصلاة خير من النوم وربما قال حي على خير العمل

2241 حدثنا أبو أسامة قال نا عبيد الله عن نافع قال كان بن عمر زاد في أذانه حي على خير العمل

مصنف ابن أبي شيبة ج1/ص195

Thoes who have said ‘’hurry up to the best act’’

Ali Ibn Hossein was saying Azan, and when he reached the sentence ‘’hurry up to the salvation’’ then said that; hurry up to the best act’’ and stated that this is the first Azan

Ibn Omar was saying in his Aan ‘’ prayer is better than sleep’’ and sometimes he was saying’’ hurry up to the best act’’

Ibn Omar has added the sentence ‘’ hurry up to the best act in his Azan’’  

D, Abd Al-Razqa Samani says that;

1797 عبد الرزاق عن بن جريج عن نافع عن بن عمر أنه كان يقيم الصلاة في السفر يقولها مرتين أو ثلاثا يقول حي على الصلاة حي على الصلاة حي على خير العمل

مصنف عبد الرزاق ج1/ص464

 When Ibn Omar was praying in a trip said that 2 or 3 times and was saying that; ‘’ hurry up to salvation and hurry up to salvation and hurry up to the best act’’

E, Motaqi Hendi says in the book Kanz Al-Omal that;

23174 - عن بلال كان بلال يؤذن بالصبح فيقول حي على خير العمل 

كنز العمال ج8/ص161

Belal was saying a morning Azan then he said in that Azan that hurry up to the best act

F, Ibn Hojr says in Lesan Al-Mizan that

زعم أنه سمع بن هارون عن الحماني عن أبي بكر بن عياش عن عبد العزيز بن رفيع عن أبي محذورة رضي الله عنه قال كنت غلاما فقال لي النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم اجعل في آخر أذانك حي على خير العمل وهذا حدثنا به جماعة عن الحضرمي عن يحيى الحماني

لسان الميزان ج1/ص268

Abi Mahzurah has said that; I was young that the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) stated that; say the sentence ‘’hurry up to the best act’’ at the end of your own Azan

Interestingly, the writer of Lesan Al-Mizan says after the quotation of this point that; he has been considered as a weak narrator due to the quotation of this narration that means that since this statement was in contrast to their own religion then they consider the narrator of this narration as a liar in spite of the admission of the other Sunnite scholars

G, Zaylai says that What has been quoted pertaining to the sentence ‘’hurry up to the best act’’ is that

ما جاء في حي على خير العمل أخرجه البيهقي عن عبد الله بن محمد بن عمار وعمار وعمر ابني أبي سعد بن عمر بن سعد عن آبائهم عن أجدادهم عن بلال أنه كان ينادي بالصبح فيقول حي على خير العمل فأمره النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم أن يجعل مكانها الصلاة خير من النوم وترك حي على خير العمل انتهى قال البيهقي لم يثبت هذا اللفظ عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فيما علم بلالا وأبا محذورة ونحن نكره الزيادة فيه والله اعلم قال في الإمام ورجاله يحتاج إلى كشف أحوالهم انتهى واخرج البيهقي أيضا عن عبد الوهاب بن عطاء ثنا مالك بن أنس عن نافع قال كان بن عمر أحيانا إذا قال حي على الفلاح قال على أثرها حي على خير العمل ثم أخرجه عن الليث بن سعد عن نافع عن بن عمر نحوه قال ورواه عبيد الله بن عمر عن نافع ان بن عمر ربما زاد في اذانه حي على خير العمل

نصب الراية ج1/ص290

 Bayhaqai has quoted from… that when Belal was saying the morning prayer then he said the sentence; hurry up to the best act’’ and then the holy prophet of GOD stated to him that replace that with the sentence ‘ prayer is better than sleep’’ and never say that again

Bayhaqi has said that; this text with these words pertaining to those things sr333cxf‘’hurry up to the best act’’ with the sentence ‘’ prayer is better than sleep’’) have not been said by the holy prophet of GOD but we do not consider  adequate what has been added in Azan ( then we do not say the sentence ‘’ hurry up to the best act’’ ) sometimes when Ibn Omar was saying the sentence that ‘’ hurry up to salvation’’ then he was saying’’ hurry up to the best act’’ after that … sometimes Ibn Omar was saying ‘’hurry up to the best act’’ in his own Azan

It is interesting that; Zayali has said that; there is no sound narration that the holy prophet of GOD has stated to Belal to say ‘’the prayer is better than sleep but only we have that he has said in his own Azan the sentence ‘’hurry up to the best act’’ but he says it is not adequate to add the sentence ‘’hurry up to the best act’’

 

GOOD LUCK

THE BORAD OF ADDRESSING THE RELIGIOUS DOUBTS

THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF VALIASR (HIS HOLINESS IMAM OF THE AGE) MAY GOD PRECIPITATE HIS BLESSING REAPEARANCE   

 



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