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Does anybody of Sunni scholars believe that Imamate is one of the principles of the religion?
ID: 93 Publish Date: 18 January 2016 - 09:55 Count Views: 530
Question & Answer » Imamat and Caliphate
Does anybody of Sunni scholars believe that Imamate is one of the principles of the religion?

In The Name of Allah The most Compassionate, the most Merciful  

Table of contents

The answer:

Caliphate is a pillar of religion.

Imamate is one of the religion principles and disagreeing with it is atheism and innovation!

Someone who denies a Caliph’s governing is an atheist!

The denier of the Abu-Bakr and Omar’s caliphate is an atheist.

The denier of the Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Imamate is an atheist.

Someone who does not believe that Abu-Bakr and Omar are Imams for guidance will be killed!

Abu-Bakr and Omar were the base of the religion after Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him); and their hatred is atheism!

Questioner: Mahmood Rostami

The Answer:

One of the issues about Shias which was always criticized by Sunnis is that why you consider the Imamate as a principle of religion. What are the reasons for this matter? Etc.

But this matter that Imamate is a principle of the religion should be analyzed in details somewhere else.

It is interesting to know that a lot of Sunni Ulema consider Caliphate and Imamate as principles and pillars of the religion explicitly. Or they proposed some issues that they result in accepting such a belief. But when Sunnis come to the point of Imam Ali’s (AS) Imamate and Shias’ belief, they do not consider Imamate as a pillar of religion and criticize it; one of those critics is Ibn Khaldoon who said:

وشبهة الإمامية في ذلك إنما هي كون الإمامة من أركان الدين كما يزعمون وليس كذلك فإنما هي من المصالح العامة المفوضة إلى نظر الخلق ولو كانت من أركان الدين لكان شأنها شأن الصلاة.

 

Shias’ doubt about this issue is that they consider Imamate as a pillar of the religion. It is one of their illusions. But it does not go as they believe; but Imamate is a general issue which is left to the people. If it was a pillar of the religion, its position should be the same as saying a prayer.[1]

On the other hand, when it comes to Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Caliphate Point, their idea is completely changed and they claim that Imamate and Caliphate are pillars of the religion.

A lot of Sunni Ulema explained this issue and we are to mention some of them:

Caliphate is a pillar of the religion.

Ibn Abdul Barr Ghartabi, Shahab Al-Din Naviri, and Ali Ibn Mahmood explicitly claimed that Caliphate is a pillar of the religion:

واستخلفه رسول الله صلي الله عليه وسلم على امته من بعده بما أظهر من الدلائل البينة على محبته فى ذلك وبالتعريض الذى يقوم مقام التصريح ولم يصرح بذلك لأنه لم يؤمر فيه بشىء وكان لا يصنع شيئا فى دين الله إلا بوحى والخلافة ركن من أركان الدين.

 

Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) appointed Abu-Bakr as his successor for his Ummat (group of people who follow a prophet)!!! Because he showed some obvious evidences for his affection toward Abu-Bakr; and then he appointed him as his successor by a metaphor which was the same as an explicit sentence. But he did not do it directly; because there was no commandment from Allah about it and Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) would not do anything about religion if there was not any revelation about it [from Allah] and caliphate is one of the principles of the religion.[2], [3], [4]

Ghortabi, a well – known interpreter, Wrote in his book of interpretation under this verse: «إنى جاعل فى الأرض خليفة»

الرابعة هذه الآية أصل في نصب إمام وخليفة يسمع له ويطاع لتجتمع به الكلمة وتنفذ به أحكام الخليفة ولا خلاف في وجوب ذلك بين الأمة ولا بين الأئمة ... ودليلنا قول الله تعالى : إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة وقوله تعالى : يا داود إنا جعلناك خليفة في الأرض وقال : وعد الله الذين آمنوا منكم وعملوا الصالحات ليستخلفنهم في الأرض أي يجعل منهم خلفاء إلى غير ذلك من ... ثم إن الصديق رضى الله عنه لما حضرته الوفاة عهد إلى عمر في الإمامة ولم يقل له أحد هذا أمر غير واجب علينا ولا عليك فدل على وجوبها وأنها ركن من أركان الدين الذي به قوام المسلمين.

 

This verse is «إنى جاعل فى الأرض خليفة» the religiously legal evidence for the obligation of the Imam And Caliph appointing to which people should respect and follow it to make the unity, and then by this unity, Caliph’s commandments are going to be accomplished.

And nobody, neither from Umat nor one of the great people, is doubtful about this issue … and our reason are these verses:

«إنى جاعل فى الأرض خليفة», «يا داود إنا جعلناك خليفة فى الأرض», «وعد الله الذين آمنوا منكم وعملوا الصالحات ليستخلفنهم فى الأرض».

They mean to choose some caliphs from among them, and some other verses ….

When Abu-Bakr was going to die, he appointed Omar as Imam after himself. And nobody told him that it is not obligatory for you or us to do so.

These reasons show that it is obligatory and a pillar of the religion [to choose Imam after someone], and the survival of Muslims depends on it.[5]   

Some other Sunni Ulema narrated and confirmed this issue in their books such as Hamad Ibn Naser Tamimi Hanbali and Shanghiti, the author of Azwa Al-Bayan, the famous interpretation.[6], [7]

Imamate is one of the religion principles and disagreeing with it is atheism and innovation!

A lot of Sunni Ulema explained that Imamate is one of the religion principles and disagreeing with it is atheism and innovation!

Beyzavi

Beyzavi was one of the famous Sunni Ulema and he authored a book about the science of principles which is one of the most fundamental books in principles. And therefore more than fourty interpretations were written on his work. He wrote in his book:

وادعت الشيعةُ ان النصَّ دَلَّ على إمامةِ علي رضي الله عنه ولم يتواتر كما لم تتواتر الإقامة والتسمية ومعجزات الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام ، قلنا الأولان من الفروع ، ولا كفر ولا بدعة في مخالفتهما ، بخلاف الإمامة ؛ وأما تلك المعجزات فلقلة المشاهدين .

Shias claim that narratives indicate Imam Ali’s (AS) Imamate, but these narratives are not successive, like the narratives about performing prayers call (and its parts) which are not successive or the narratives about saying In The Name Allah in the prayer (whether to say loudly or slowly) which are not successive or the miracles about Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) which are not successive. We give an answer to them that the first two issues are not about the principles of religion and disagreeing with them does not cause the atheism or innovation unlike Imamate; and Prophet Mohammad’s (Peace Be Upon Him) miracles are not successive because just a little people saw them! 

This expression clearly explains that he considered Imamate as a principle of the religion and disagreeing with it causes to be atheist or innovator.

There are a lot of interpretations on this book that prove this issue and we are going to mention to some of them.

Mohammad Abu Al-Noor Zahir Ostaad Al-Azhar

He wrote in his book, Osool Al-Fegh, which is an interpretation on Beyzavi’s book:

وأجاب الجمهور عن ذلك ، بأن الاقامة و التسمية في الصلاة لم تتوفر الدواعي على نقلها لكونها من الأحكام الفرعية ، والمخطئ فيها ليس بكافر ولا مبتدع ، بخلاف الإمامة ، فإنها من أصول الدين والمخالفة فيها فتنة وبدعة

Jomhoor gives an answer to Shias’ doubt that it was not much interesting to quote saying In The Name Of Allah in praying or performing prayers call; because they were not principles of the religion and he who mistakes in them is not an atheist or innovator. But it is not true about the Imamate; because it is one of the principles of the religion and disagreeing with it causes innovation and sedition.

Sheikh Al-Islam Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi Sabki

Also Sheikh Al-Islam Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi Sabki wrote in his interpretation on this book:

وأجاب عن الأولين أعني الإقامة والتسمية بأنهما من مسائل الفروع ولا كفر ولا بدعة في مخالفتهما فلم تتواتر الدواعي علي نقلهما لذلك ، بخلاف الإمامة فإنها من الأصول ومخالفتها بدعة وموثرة في الفتن

The author gives an answer about the first two issues that it was not much interesting to quote saying In The Name Of Allah in praying or performing prayers call; because they were not principles of the religion and he who mistakes in them is not an atheist or innovator. But it is not true about the Imamate; because it is one of the principles of the religion and disagreeing with it causes innovation and sedition.

Mohammad Ibn Al-Hassan Al-Badakhshi

Mohammad Ibn Al-Hassan Al-Badakhshi confirmed this issue in his interpretation on this book too.

Fakhr Al-Din Ahmed Ibn Hassan ibn Yusuf Al-Jaberdi

He also confirmed this issue in his interpretation, AlSeraaj Al-Wahaaj.

Shams Al-Din Mahmmod Ibn Abdul Rahman Esfahani

He also confirmed this issue in his interpretation of Beyzavi book.

Someone who denies a Caliph’s governing is an atheist!

One of the expressions, which describes the Sunnis’ belief toward the Caliph best, is that if a person denies a Caliph’s Imamate and Caliphate, they are atheist. If Imamate and Caliphate is not a principle of the religion, how does its denial cause the atheism?

Ibn Atiyeh makki quoted from Abu Mohammad Sahl Ibn Abdullah:

وكان (ابو محمد) سهل (بن عبد الله) رحمه اللّه تعالى يقول : من أنكر إمامة لسطان فهو زنديق.

Abu Mohammad Sahl Ibn Abdullah (may Allah bless him) said: everybody who denies a Caliph’s Imamate is atheist![8]

This issue was quoted from him in some other books: [9], [10]

Sahl Ibn Abdullah’s biography:

والمشهور بهذه النسبة من المشايخ الكبار أبو محمد سهل بن عبد الله بن يونس بن عيسى بن عبد الله بن رفيع التستري الساكن بالبصرة صاحب كرامات وآيات صحب ذا النون المصري

Abu Mohammad Sahl Ibn Abdullah Ibn Yunos Ibn Eisa Ibn Abdullah Ibn Rafi’e Tostari is one of the greatest people who is attributed to Tostar. He was from Basra. He had a lot of virtues. He was a Zon Al-noon’s companion.[11]

The denier of the Abu-Bakr and Omar’s caliphate is an atheist.

One of the other decrees which indicates this issue in Sunnis’ belief is considering atheist the one who denies the Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Caliphate. There are a lot of proofs about this issue to some of which we are going to mention:

Ibn aabedin Hanafi

وفي الفتح عن الخلاصة ومن أنكر خلافة الصديق أو عمر فهو كافر ا ه

It is mentioned in the book, Al-Fath, that the one who denies Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Caliphate is an atheist. [12] 

Taghi Al-Din Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi Sabki

وفي الخلاصة من كتبهم في الأصل ثم قال وإن أنكر خلافة الصديق فهو كافر

It is quoted from Al-Asl book in Al-Kholaseh book that the denier of the Abu-Bakr’s Caliphate is an atheist!.[13]  

Ibn Hajar Heythami

فمذهب أبي حنيفة رضي الله عنه أن من أنكر خلافة الصديق أو عمر فهو كافر على خلاف حكاه بعضهم وقال الصحيح أنه كافر

والمسالة مذكورة في كتبهم في الغاية للسروجي والفتاوى الظهيرية والأصل لمحمد بن الحسن ... وكذلك من أنكر خلافة عمر في أصح الأقوال ولم يتعرض أكثرهم للكلام على ذلك

It is Abu Hanife’s belief that someone who denies the Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Caliphate is an atheist. Some people quoted unlike it but they said that it is true that he is an atheist.

This issue is mentioned in the Ahnaaf’s books such as Ghayat Sarvaji and Fatavye Zahiriyeh and Mohammad Ibn Hassan’s Al-Asl. According to a right decree, if someone denies Omar’s Caliphate, he is an atheist; but a lot of Ulema did not say anything about Omar’s Caliphate.[14]

Al-Sheikh Nezaam

فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ وَعَلَى قَوْلِ بَعْضِهِمْ هو مُبْتَدِعٌ وَلَيْسَ بِكَافِرٍ وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ كَافِرٌ وَكَذَلِكَ من أَنْكَرَ خِلَافَةَ عُمَرَ رضي اللَّهُ عنه في أَصَحِّ الْأَقْوَالِ كَذَا في الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ.

The denier of the Abu-Bakr’s Caliphate is an atheist, but some people believe that he is an innovator not an atheist. And it is right that he is an atheist. And also it is right that he who denies Omar’s Caliphate is an atheist. This issue is mentioned in Al-Zahiriyeh Book.[15]

Abu Saeed Al-Khademi

وَفِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ ... فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فِي الصَّحِيحِ... وَكَذَلِكَ مَنْ أَنْكَرَ خِلَافَةَ عُمَرَ فِي أَصَحِّ الْأَقْوَالِ.

It is mentioned in Zahiriyeh and right that the denier of the Abu-Bakr’s Caliphate is an atheist; and also he who denies Omar’s Caliphate is an atheist.[16]

Syvasi

وفي الروافض أن من فضل عليا على الثلاثة فمبتدع وإن أنكر خلافة الصديق أو عمر رضي الله عنهما فهو كافر .

It is said that if somebody considers Ali superior to the last three Caliphs, he is an innovator; and if someone denies Abu-Bakr and Omar’s caliphate, he is an atheist![17]

Ibn Najim Hanafi

وَالرَّافِضِيُّ إنْ فَضَّلَ عَلِيًّا على غَيْرِهِ فَهُوَ مُبْتَدِعٌ وَإِنْ أَنْكَرَ خِلَافَةَ الصِّدِّيقِ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ

If someone considers Ali superior to the others, he is an innovator; and if someone denies Abu-Bakr’s Caliphate, he is an atheist.[18]

Kalibooli

قال المرغيناني تجوز الصلاة خلف صاحب هوى إلا أنه لا تجوز خلف الرافضي والجهني والقدري والمشبهة ومن يقول بخلق القرآن والرافضي إن فضل عليا فهو مبتدع وإن أنكر خلافة الصديق فهو كافر.

Marghinani has said  and if someone considers Ali superior to the other Caliphs, he is an innovator; and also if someone denies the Abu-Bakr’s Caliphate, he is an atheist.[19]

The denier of the Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Imamate is an atheist.

Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi Sabki

وقد رأيت في الفتاوى البديعية من كتب الحنفية قَسَّمَ الرافضةَ إلى كفار وغيرهم وذكر الخلاف في بعض طوائفهم وفيمن أنكر إمامة أبي بكر وعمر أن الصحيح أنه يكفر ولا شك أنه إنكار الإمامة دون السب.

He wrote: I saw one of the new decrees in the Ahnaaf books which divided heretics in to two parts: those who are atheist and those who are not. He said there was a difference in the quotation of their decrees. But it is right about someone who denies Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Imamate that he is an atheist. Surely, it [this decree] is about the time when he just denies their Imamate and does not curse them.[20]   

Also he wrote in somewhere else:

فإذا قال أبو حنيفة بتكفير من ينكر إمامة الصديق رضي الله عنه فتكفير لاعنه أولى والظاهر أن المستند منكر إمامة الصديق مخالفته للإجماع بناء على أن جاحد الحكم المجمع عليه كافر وهو المشهور عند الأصوليين

Surely, someone who curses Abu-Bakr is an atheist, while Abu Hanife believes that the denier of Abu-Bakr’s Imamate is an atheist. And apparently, the document for this decree is disagreeing of that person with the general consensus; because the denier of the general consensus is an atheist. This issue is famous among the fundamentalists.[21]

This issue was also quoted by Ibn Hajar in Al-Savaegh.[22]

Abdul Wahhab Ibn Ali Sabki

وفي الخلاصة من كتبهم في الأصل ثم قال وإن أنكر خلافة الصديق فهو كافر

وفي الفتاوى البديعية من كتب الحنفية من أنكر إمامة أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه فهو كافر وقال بعضهم هو مبتدع والصحيح أنه كافر ...الأمر الرابع النقول عن العلماء فمذهب أبي حنيفة أن من أنكر خلافة الصديق رضي الله عنه فهو كافر وكذلك من أنكر خلافة عمر بن الخطاب رضي الله عنه ومنهم من لم يحك في ذلك خلافا وقال الصحيح أنه كافر والمسألة مذكورة في كتبهم في الغاية للسروجي وفي الفتاوى الظهيرية والبديعية وفي الأصل لمحمد بن الحسن والظاهر أنهم أخذوا ذلك عن إمامهم أبي حنيفة رضي الله عنه

They wrote in their Hanafi books: It is mentioned in Al-Asl book that he who denies Abu-Bakr’s Caliphate is an atheist. And it is mentioned in Al-Fatavi Al-Badi’eiya book, one of the Hanafi books, that someone who denies Abu-Bakr’s Imamate is an atheist. This issue is mentioned in their books such as Al-Ghayat Sarvaji, Al-Fatava Al-Zahiriya, and Mohammad Ibn Al-Hassan’s Al-Asl; apparently they followed their leader Abu Hanife in this decree![23]

Ibn Hajar Heythami

وفي الفتاوى البديعية فإنه قسم الرافضة إلى كفار وغيرهم وذكر الخلاف في بعض طوائفهم وفيمن أنكر إمامة أبي بكر وزعم ان الصحيح أنه يكفر.

وفي الفتاوى البديعية من أنكر إمامة أبي بكر رضي الله عنه فهو كافر وقال بعضهم وهو مبتدع والصحيح أنه كافر

Fatava Badi’eiyah (the book) divided heretics into two parts: those who are atheist and those who are not. But it is quoted about the denier of the Abu-Bakr’s Imamate that they are atheist and this decree is right.[24]

Al-Sheikh Nezaam

من أَنْكَرَ إمَامَةَ أبي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ رضي اللَّهُ عنه فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ وَعَلَى قَوْلِ بَعْضِهِمْ هو مُبْتَدِعٌ وَلَيْسَ بِكَافِرٍ وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ كَافِرٌ

Someone who denies Abu-Bakr’s Imamate is an atheist. Some people believe that he is an innovator not an atheist; but it is right that he is an atheist.[25]  

Abu Saeed Al-Khademi

( وَفِي الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ ) لِظَهِيرِ الدِّينِ الْمَرْغِينَانِيِّ وَمَنْ أَنْكَرَ إمَامَةَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ فِي الصَّحِيحِ .[26]

Someone who does not believe that Abu-Bakr and Omar are Imams for guidance will be killed!

Zahabi and some other Sunni Ulema quoted from Zahabi:

قال محمد بن علي بن سهل الامام سمعت بن جرير قال من قال ان أبا بكر وعمر ليسا بإمامي هدى يقتل

Imam Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Sahl Said: I have heard from Ibn Jarir (Tabari) that someone who does not believe that Abu-Bakr and Omar are Imams for guidance will be killed![27], [28], [29]

In some books, his quotation is written as:

It means he emphasized that he should be killed!

Abu-Bakr and Omar were the base of the religion after Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him); and their hatred is atheism!

وأما الرافضي فإنه يبغض أبا بكر وعمر رضي الله عنهما لما استقر في ذهنه بجهله وما نشأ عليه من الفساد عن اعتقاده ظلمهما لعلي وليس كذلك ولا علي يعتقد ذلك فاعتقاد الرافضي ذلك يعود على الدين بنقص لأن أبا بكر وعمر هما أصل بعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فهذا مأخذ التكفير ببغض الرافضة لهما وسبهم لهما

A heretic is spiteful toward Abu-Bakr and Omar, because it foolishly is buried in their mind and they believe that Imam Ali (AS) was bothered by them [Abu-Bakr and Omar]. But it is not true and Imam Ali (AS) himself did not believe it!

Therefore, heretic’s belief causes imperfection in his religion, because Abu-Bakr and Omar were the base [of the religion] after Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) and it causes to call a heretic an atheist; because they feel animosity toward Abu-Bakr and Omar and curse them.[30]

If you do not consider Abu-Bakr and Omar’s Imamate as a principle of the religion, so what does it mean to sentence their opponents as atheist and decree to kill them?

Good Luck

Answering to the doubts group

Vali Asr research institute

        



[1] Ibn Khaldoon al-Hazrami, Abdulrahman Ibn Mohammad (died in: 808 AH), Moghademat Ibn Khaldoon, v 1, p 212, Publisher: Dar Al-Ghalam – Beirut – 1984, Edition: Fifth.

[2] Ibn Abdul Barr al-Namari Al-Ghortabi Al-Maleki, Abu Omar Yusuf Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abdul Barr (died in: 463 AH), Al-Esti’ab Fi Ma’refat Al-Ashab, v 3, p 969, research: Ali Mohammad Al-Bajavi, Publisher: Dar Al-Jeil – Beirut, Edition: first, 1412 AH.

[3] Al-Khazaei, Ali Ibn Mahmood Ibn Masoud Abu Al-Hassan (died in: 789 AH), Takhrij Al-dalalat Al-Sameia Ala Ma Kana FI Ahd Prophet Mohammad (Peace Be Upon Him) Men Al-Harf, v 1, p 44, research: D. Ehsan Abbas, Publisher: Dar Al-Gharb Al-Eslami – Beirut, Edition: First, 1405 AH.

[4] Al-Naviri, Shahab Al-Din Ahmed Ibn Abdul Vahhab (died in: 733 AH), Nahyat Al-Arb Fi Fonoon Al-Adab, v 19, p 14, research: Mofid Ghamhiyah et al, Publisher: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmiyah – Beirut, Edition: First, 1424 AH, 2004.

[5] Al-Ansari Al-Ghortabi, Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Ahmed (died in: 671 AH), Al-Jame’ Leahkam Al-Quran (Al-Ghortabi interpretation), v 1, p 265, Publisher: Dar Al-Sha’ab – Cairo

[6] Al-Tamimi Al-Hanbali, Hamad Ibn Naser Ibn Othman Aal Mo’ammar (died in: 1225 AH), Al-Fawakeh Al-Azab Fi Al-Radd Ala Man Yahkam Al-Senate va Al-Ketab, v 1, p 212, according to the program Al-Jame’ Al-Kabir.

[7] Al-Jakni Al-Shanghiti, Mohammad Al-Amin Ben Mohammad Ben Al-Mokhtar (died in 1393 AH), AzwaAl-Bayan Fi Eizah Al-Quran BelQuran, v 1, p 21, research: Maktab Al-Bohooth Va Al-Darasat, Publisher: Dar Al-Fekr Lettabaa’a Va Al-Nashr – Beirut, 1415 AH, 1995.

[8] Al-Harethi, Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Atiyeh, known as Abi Taleb Al-Makki, (died in: 286 AH), Ghowat Al-Gholoob Fi Moamelate Al-Mahboob Va Wasf Tarigh Al-Morid Ela Magham Al-Towhid, v 2, p 210,  research: D. Asem Ibrahim Al-Kayali, Publisher: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmiyeh – Beirut/Lebanon, Edition: Second, 1426 AH, 2005.

[9] Al-Ghazzali, Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Abu Hamed (died in: 505 AH), Ehya’e Oloom Al-Din, v 4, p 99, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Beirut.

[10] Al-Manavi, Mohammad Abd Al-Ra’oof Ibn Ali Ibn Zein Al-Aabedin (died in: 1031), feyz Al-Ghadir Sharh Al-Jame’ Al-SAghir, v 2, p 455, Publisher: Al-Makteba Al-Tejaria Al-Kobra – Egypt, Edition: First, 1356 AH.

[11] Al-Sam’aani, Abu Saeed Abdul KarimIbn Mohammad IBn Mansoor Al-Tamimi (died in: 562 AH), Al-Ansab, v 1, p 465, research: Abdullah Omar Al-Baroodi, Publisher: Dar Al-Fekr – Beirut, Edition: First, 1998.

[12] Ibn Aabedin, Mohammad Amin Ibn Omar (died in: 1252 AH), Hashiat Radd Al-Mokhtaar Ala Al-Dorr Al-Mokhtaar Sharh Tanvir al-Absar Fegh Abu Hanifeh, v 1, p 561, Publisher: Dar Al-Fekr Leltabaa’a Va Al-Nashr – Beirut. 1421 AH – 2000.

[13] Al-Sabki, Abu Nasr Taaj Al-Din Abdul Wahhab Ibn Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi (died in: 771 AH), Fataawi Al-Sabki, v 2, p 576, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Lebanon, Beirut.

[14] Al-Heythami, Abu Al-Abbas Ahmed Ibn Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar (died in: 973 AH), Al-savaaegh Al-Mahragha Ala Ahl Al-Razz Va Al-Zelal Va Al-Zandagha, v 1, p 138, research: Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Abdullah Al-Torki – Kamel Mohammad Al-Kharrat , Publisher: Al-Resala Institute – Lebanon, Edition: First, 1417 AH, 1997.

[15] Al-Sheikh Nezaam and group of Indian Ulema, Al-Fatavi Al-Hendiya Fi Mazhab Al-Imam Al-Azam Abi Hanifeh Al-No’man, v 2, p 264, Publisher: Dar Al-Fekr – 1411, 1991.

[16] Al-Khademi, Abu Saeed Mohammad Ibn Mohammad (died in: 1156 AH), Barigha Mahmoodiya, v 2, p 104, according to the software program: Al-Jame’ Al-Kabir.

[17] Al-Syvasi, Kamaal Al-Din Mohammad Ibn Abd Al-Wahed (died in: 681 AH), Sharh Fath Al-Ghadir, v 1, p 350, Publisher: Dar Al-Fekr, Edition: Second, Beirut.

[18] Ibn Najim Al-Hanafi, Zein Al-Din (died in: 970 AH), Al-Bahr Al-Raegh Sahrh Kenz Al-Daghaaegh, v 1, p 370, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Beirut, Edition: Second.

[19] Al-Kalibooli, Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Mohammad Ibn Soleyman Al-Mad’ov Be Sheikhi Zadeh (died in: 1078 AH), Majma Al-Anhar Fi Sharh Moltaghi Al-Abhar, v 1, p 163, research: Kharh Aayateh Va Ahaditheh Khalil Omran Al- Mansour, Publisher: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmiya – Lebanon/Beirut, Edition: First, 1419 AH, 1998.

[20] Al-Sabki, Abu asr Taaj Al-Din Abdul Wahhab Ibn Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi (died In: 771 AH), Fatawi Al-Sabki, v 2, p 576, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Lebanon/Beirut.

[21] Al-Sabki, Abu asr Taaj Al-Din Abdul Wahhab Ibn Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi (died In: 771 AH), Fatawi Al-Sabki, v 2, p 588, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Lebanon/Beirut.

[22] Al-Heythami, Abu Al-Abbas Ahmed Ibn Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar (died in: 973 AH), Al-Savaegh Al-Moharragha Ala Ahl Al-Rafz Va AL-Zalal Va Al-Zandagha, v 1, p 145, research: Abdul Rahman Ibn Abdullah Al-Tarki – Kamel Mohammad Al-Kharrat, Publisher: AlResala Institute – Lebanon, Edition: First, 1417 AH, 1997.

[23] Al-Sabki, Abu Nasr Taaj Al-Din Abdul Wahhab Ibn Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi (died in: 771 AH), Fatavi Al-Sabki, v 2, pp 576 – 587, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Lebanon/Beirut.

[24] Al-Heythami, Abu Al-Abbas Ahmed Ibn Mohammad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar (died in: 973 AH), Al-Savaegh Al-Mahragha Ala Ahl Al-Rafz Va Al-Zelal Va Al-Zandagha, v 1, p 138, research: Abdul Rahman Ibn Abdullah Al-Tarki – Kamel Mohammad Al-Kharrat, Publisher: Al-Resala Institute – Lebanon, Edition: First, 1417 AH, 1997.

[25] Al-Sheikh Nezaam and the group of Indian Ulema, Al-Fatavi Al-Hendiya Fi Mazhab Al-Imam Al-Azam Abi Hanife Al-No’man, v2, p 264, Publisher: Dar Al-Fekr – 1411 AH, 1991.

[26] Al-Khademi, Abu Saeed Mohammad Ibn Mohammad (died in: 1156 AH), Barghiye Mahmoodiye, v 2, p 104, according to Al-Jame’ Al-Kabir software program.

[27] Al-Zahabi Al-Shafei, Shams Al-Din Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Ahmed Ibn Osman (died in: 748 AH), Tazkerat Al-Hefaaz, v 2, p 712, Publisher: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmiya – Beirut, Edition: first.

[28] Al-Asghlani Al-Shafei, Ahmed Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar AbulFazl (died in: 852 AH), Lesan Al-Mizaan, v 5, p 101, research: Daerat Al-Maref Al-Nezaamiya – India, Publisher: A’lami LelMatboo’aat Institute – Beirut, Edition: Second, 1406 AH, 1986.  

[29] Al-Zahabi Al-Shafei, Shams Al-Din Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Ahmed Ibn Osman (died in: 748 AH), Seir A’lam Al-Nabla, v 14, p 275, research: Shoaib Al-Arnaawoot, Mohammad Na’im Al-Arghsoosi, Publisher: Al-Resaala Institue, Beirut, Edition: Ninth, 1413.

[30] Al-Sabki, Abu Nasr Taaj Al-Din Abdul Wahhab Ibn Ali Ibn Abdul Kaafi (died in: 771 AH), Fatawi Al-Sabki, v 2, p 576, Publisher: Dar Al-Marefa – Lebanon/Beirut.



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