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Was commander of faithful [AS] aware of his martyrdom? If so, why did he go to the mosque?
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Was commander of faithful [AS] aware of his martyrdom? If so, why did he go to the mosque?

 

Translated by: Muhammad hassan heidary

Was commander of faithful [AS] aware of his martyrdom? If so, why did he go to the mosque?    

The response of the first question:

According to Shiite and Sunni narratives, commander of faithful [AS] was aware of his martyrdom and knew his murderer and even knew the details of his martyrdom. And in Shiite narratives there are more details of his martyrdom like the awareness of the place and time of martyrdom.

As sheikh “Mufid” says, narratives in this regard are successive. He writes:

تواترت الروايات من نعيه عليه السلام نفسه قبل وفاته و الخبر عن الحادث في قتله و أنه يخرج من الدنيا شهيدا بضربة في رأسه يخضب دمها لحيته فكان الأمر في ذلك كما قال.

There successive narratives that commander of faithful [AS] was aware of his martyrdom before the time of death comes up and he informed about events that will happen at the time of his martyrdom and will get martyred as the result of getting hit in head and the blood of his head will dye his beard and what he said about, happened.

Al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan Al mufid, (d 413 AH), Al ershad in knowing god’s proofs for creatures, vol. 1, p. 319, Researcher: Institute of Al al-Bayt peace be upon them, Publisher: Dar Al mufid - Beirut - Lebanon, published year: 1414 – 1993

Followings are narratives in this regard:

First narrative:

حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا سَعْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ أَبِي الْخَطَّابِ عَنِ الْحَكَمِ بْنِ مِسْكِينٍ الثَّقَفِيِّ عَنْ صَالِحِ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ عَنْ جَعْفَرِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدٍ ع‏ قَالَ: لَمَّا هَلَكَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَ اسْتَخْلَفَ عُمَرُ رَجَعَ عُمَرُ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ فَقَعَدَ فَدَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنِّي رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْيَهُودِ وَ أَنَا عَلَّامَتُهُمْ وَ قَدْ أَرَدْتُ أَنْ أَسْأَلَكَ عَنْ مَسَائِلَ إِنْ أَجَبْتَنِي فِيهَا أَسْلَمْتُ وَ إِنْ كَانَ فِي قَوْمِكَ أَحَدٌ أَعْلَمَ مِنْكَ فَأَرْشِدْنِي إِلَيْهِ قَالَ عَلَيْكَ بِذَلِكَ الشَّابِّ يَعْنِي عَلِيَّ بْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ عليه السلام ... ثُمَّ قَالَ كَمْ يَعِيشُ وَصِيُّهُ (رسول الله) بَعْدَهُ قَالَ ثَلَاثِينَ سَنَةً قَالَ ثُمَّ مَا ذَا يَمُوتُ أَوْ يُقْتَلُ قَالَ يُقْتَلُ وَ يُضْرَبُ عَلَى قَرْنِهِ فَتُخْضَبُ لِحْيَتُهُ قَالَ صَدَقْتَ وَ اللَّهِ إِنَّهُ لَبِخَطِّ هَارُونَ وَ إِمْلَاءِ مُوسَى.

وَ لِهَذَا الْحَدِيثِ طُرُقٌ أُخَرُ قَدْ أَخْرَجْتُهَا فِي كِتَابِ كَمَالِ الدِّينِ وَ تَمَامِ النِّعْمَة.

 

Al qomi- Abi ja’afar Al sadoogh, Muhammad ibn Al Husain ibn babooyah. (D. 381 AH), reticulated News Reza (PBUH) vol. 2, p. 57, R: Correction and submission: Sheikh Hussein Al-‘aelami, - publisher: institute of Al ‘aelami, Beirut - Lebanon, Published year: 1404 H.

Imam “Bagher” [AS] said: when “Abu Bakr” died and “Omar” took his place, “Omar” went to the masque and sat. someone went to him and said: O’ Commander of faithful I’m a Jewish, I want to ask you some question if you answer I’ll become Muslim. “Omar” said ask. He said if there is any one more knowledgeable than you send me to him asking my question. “Omar” mentioned to Ali [AS] and said: ask him your question… he asked: how many years will Prophet’s successor live after prophet [PBUH]? Ali [AS] said: thirty years. He asked: then, will he die or get killed? He said: he’ll get killed, he’ll get hit in the head and his beard is dyed by his blood. The author [sheikh Sadoogh] says: this hadith has other documents that I’ve quoted them in the book “perfect religion and completed blessing”

Second narrative:

عِدَّةٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِنَا عَنْ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ خَالِدٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْقَاسِمِ عَنْ حَنَانِ بْنِ السَّرَّاجِ‏ عَنْ دَاوُدَ بْنِ سُلَيْمَانَ الْكِسَائِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي الطُّفَيْلِ قَالَ شَهِدْتُ جِنَازَةَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ يَوْمَ مَاتَ وَ شَهِدْتُ عُمَرَ حِينَ بُويِعَ وَ عَلِيٌّ ع جَالِسٌ نَاحِيَةً فَأَقْبَلَ غُلَامٌ يَهُودِيٌّ جَمِيلُ الْوَجْهِ بَهِيٌّ عَلَيْهِ ثِيَابُ حِسَانٌ وَ هُوَ مِنْ وُلْدِ هَارُونَ حَتَّى قَامَ عَلَى رَأْسِ عُمَرَ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ‏ هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ بِكِتَابِهِمْ وَ أَمْرِ نَبِيِّهِمْ قَالَ فَطَأْطَأَ عُمَرُ رَأْسَهُ ...‏ فَقَالَ دُونَكَ‏ هَذَا الشَّابَّ قَالَ وَ مَنْ هَذَا الشَّابُّ قَالَ هَذَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِب‏ ... فَقَالَ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنْ وَصِيِّ مُحَمَّدٍ كَمْ يَعِيشُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ وَ هَلْ يَمُوتُ أَوْ يُقْتَلُ قَالَ (أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عليه السلام) يَا هَارُونِيُ‏ يَعِيشُ بَعْدَهُ ثَلَاثِينَ سَنَةً لَا يَزِيدُ يَوْماً وَ لَا يَنْقُصُ يَوْماً ثُمَّ يُضْرَبُ ضَرْبَةً هَاهُنَا يَعْنِي عَلَى قَرْنِهِ فَتُخْضَبُ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذَا.

Al Kuleini, Abu ja’afar Muhammad ibn ibn yaqub ib eshagh. Died in: 328 H, Al kafi principle. V 1, P 529.

 “Abu Al tofeil” says: when “Abu Bakr” died, I was there and when they swore “Omar” an allegiance I was there, a Jewish beautiful adolescent who was amongst the descendant of “Aaron” went to “Omar” and said: O’ commander of faithful! Are you the most knowledgeable amongst this nation to their scripture and their prophet’s prophecy state? “Omar” looked down….and said: ask this young man. He said: who is that young person? “Omar” said: he is “Ali ibn Abi taleb”. Jewish said to Ali [AS]: how many years will Prophet’s successor live after prophet [PBUH]? Will he die or get killed? He said: He’ll live thirty years after prophet [PBUH] neither one day more nor less and then he’ll get hit in here – his head- and his beards are dyed by his blood

Third narrative:

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ الْحَسَنِ الْقَطَّانُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى بْنِ زَكَرِيَّا الْقَطَّانُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا بَكْرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ حَبِيبٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ زِيَادٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا مَرْوَانُ بْنُ مُعَاوِيَةَ عَنِ الْأَعْمَشِ عَنْ أَبِي حَيَّانَ التَّيْمِيِ‏ عَنْ أَبِيهِ و كَانَ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ ع يَوْمَ صِفِّينَ وَ فِيمَا بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ قَالَ: بَيْنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع يُعَبِّئُ الْكَتَائِبَ يَوْمَ صِفِّينَ وَ مُعَاوِيَةُ مُسْتَقْبِلُهُ عَلَى فَرَسٍ لَهُ يَتَأَكَّلُ تَحْتَهُ تَأَكُّلًا وَ عَلِيٌّ ع عَلَى فَرَسِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص الْمُرْتَجِزِ وَ بِيَدِهِ حَرْبَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص وَ هُوَ مُتَقَلِّدٌ سَيْفَهُ ذُو الْفَقَارِ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ احْتَرِسْ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَإِنَّا نَخْشَى أَنْ يَغْتَالَكَ هَذَا الْمَلْعُونُ فَقَالَ ع لَئِنْ قُلْتَ ذَاكَ إِنَّهُ غَيْرُ مَأْمُونٍ عَلَى دِينِهِ وَ إِنَّهُ لَأَشْقَى الْقَاسِطِينَ وَ أَلْعَنُ الْخَارِجِينَ عَلَى الْأَئِمَّةِ الْمُهْتَدِينَ وَ لَكِنْ كَفَى بِالْأَجَلِ حَارِساً لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ مِنَ النَّاسِ إِلَّا وَ مَعَهُ مَلَائِكَةٌ حَفَظَةٌ يَخْفَظُونَهُ مِنْ أَنْ يَتَرَدَّى فِي بِئْرٍ أَوْ يَقَعَ عَلَيْهِ حَائِطٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُ سُوءٌ فَإِذَا حَانَ أَجَلُهُ خَلَّوْا بَيْنَهُ وَ بَيْنَ مَا يُصِيبُهُ وَ كَذَلِكَ أَنَا إِذَا حَانَ أَجَلِي انْبَعَثَ أَشْقَاهَا فَخَضَّبَ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذَا وَ أَشَارَ إِلَى لِحْيَتِهِ وَ رَأْسِهِ عَهْداً مَعْهُوداً وَ وَعْداً غَيْرَ مَكْذُوبٍ.

Al sadoogh, Abu Ja’far, Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Al Husain [died in: 381 H] Al tohid, p 367

“Abu Hayyan” quotes from his father- who was with Ali [AS] in “Seffin” war and after that- when Ali [AS] was arranging army, “Mu’awiya” came to him while riding on the horse and Ali [AS] was riding on prophet’s horse called “Murtajez” and had prophet’s dagger in his hand and had pulled his sword named “Dhu Alfaqar”, one of his companions said: Ali [AS] be careful we’re afraid that this cursed person surprises and kills you suddenly. Ali [AS] said: what you say is right [he’s cursed and unashamed] he’s ungodly and is more miserable than all wrongdoers and is the most cursed person who fights guider Imams, but the best protector is the death time [death has a certain time and my death is not in his hand]. Anyone is followed by some angles and they protect them till they don’t fall in the well or wall wouldn’t collapse on their head or bad incident doesn’t happen to him, but when their death time comes up, angles will leave them. And when my death time comes up the most miserable person of this nation will dye my beards by my head’s blood. Ali [AS] mentioned to his head and beards and said: it’s a real promise.

Fourth narrative:

بِهَذَا الْإِسْنَادِ [أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْفَتْحِ هِلَالُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ الْحَفَّارُ، قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْقَاسِمِ إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الدِّعْبِلِيُّ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي أَبُو الْحَسَنِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ عَلِيِّ بْنِ رَزِينِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بُدَيْلِ بْنَ وَرْقَاءَ أَخُو دِعْبِلِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ الْخُزَاعِيِّ (رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ) بِبَغْدَادَ سَنَةَ اثْنَتَيْنِ وَ سَبْعِينَ وَ مِائَتَيْنِ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا سَيِّدِي أَبُو الْحَسَنِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ مُوسَى الرِّضَا قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي مُوسَى بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي جَعْفَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عَلِيٍّ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَلِيِّ بْنِ الْحُسَيْنِ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ الْحُسَيْنِ بْنِ عَلِيٍّ عَلَيْهِمُ السَّلَامُ] قَالَ: خَطَبَ النَّاسَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (عَلَيْهِ السَّلَامُ) بِالْكُوفَةِ، فَقَالَ: مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ، إِنَّ الْحَقَّ قَدْ غَلَبَهُ الْبَاطِلُ ... أَيْنَ أَشْقَاكُمْ فَوَ اللَّهِ لَيَضْرِبَنَّ هَذِهِ فَلَيْخْضِبَنَّهَا مِنْ هَذِهِ. وَ أَشَارَ بِيَدِهِ إِلَى هَامَتِهِ وَ لِحْيَتِهِ.

Al-Tusi, Sheikh Abu Ja 'far Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn al-Hasan (d. 460 AH), Al amali, p 364,

Imam Hussein [AS] quotes from commander of faithful [AS]: my father read sermon amongst people of “Kufa” and said: indeed, null overcame the right…. Where is the most miserable person of this nation. Swear to god he’ll hit this spot, he mentioned to his head and beards by his hand.

Fifth narrative:

Al-Tusi, Sheikh Abu Ja 'far Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn Ali ibn al-Hasan (d. 460 AH), Al amali, Page 267, Institute Al besat,

“Hubairah ibn Maryam” says: I heard from Ali [AS] while touching his beards, he said: what has

stopped the most wicked person of this nation, till he dyes it from above to the bottom by my blood

Other narratives:

We’ll say some narratives written in the book ”Al ershd” from sheikh “Mufid”. About the validity of the narratives, it’s necessary to say that, though, the author hasn’t quoted the documents of the narratives entirely, but according to the preface of the book, author wants to say narratives that we can get to the truth via them. In this case it’s obvious that we can’t rely on any narrative. So we can realize the rank of the validity of these narratives in author’s perspective.

The text of preface:

و بعد فإني مُثْبِتٌ بتوفيق الله و معونته ما سألتَ أيدك الله إثباتَه من أسماء أئمة الهدى عليهم السلام و تاريخ أعمارهم و ذكر مشاهدهم و أسماء أولادهم و طرف من أخبارهم المفيدة لعلم أحوالهم لتقف على ذلك وقوف العارف بهم و يظهر لك الفرق ما بين الدعاوي و الاعتقادات فيهم فتميز بنظرك فيه ما بين الشبهات منه و البينات و تعتمد الحق فيه اعتماد ذوي الإنصاف و الديانات.

Al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan Almfyd, (d 413 AH), Alarshad in knowing god’s proofs for creatures, vol. 1, p. 4, searched by: Institute of Al al-Bayt peace be upon them, Publisher: Dar Al mufid - Beirut – Lebanon,1414 H - 1993 AD. With the grace of god and his contribution, I’ll say in this book, what you’ve asked their proof, from Shiite Imams names and the period of their life and the place of their martyrdom and the names of their children and part of story of their life that makes people to aware of their lifestyle, I’ve said such things till you know them fully and make difference about remarks ascribed to them, till doubtful issues are separated from truths and to rely on right talk in this regard like the reliance of godly and fair people.

Some of the narratives of this book:

First narrative:

 [فمن الأخبار التي جاءت بذكره ع الحادث قبل كونه و علمه به قبل حدوثه‏] مَا أَخْبَرَ بِهِ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْمُنْذِرِ الطَّرِيقِيُّ عَنِ ابْنِ الْفُضَيْلِ الْعَبْدِيِ‏ عَنْ فِطْرٍ عَنْ أَبِي الطُّفَيْلِ عَامِرِ بْنِ وَاثِلَةَ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ قَالَ: جَمَعَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع النَّاسَ لِلْبَيْعَةِ فَجَاءَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مُلْجَمٍ الْمُرَادِيُّ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ فَرَدَّهُ مَرَّتَيْنِ أَوْ ثَلَاثاً ثُمَّ بَايَعَهُ وَ قَالَ عِنْدَ بَيْعَتِهِ لَهُ مَا يَحْبِسُ أَشْقَاهَا فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَتُخْضَبَنَ‏ هَذِهِ مِنْ هَذَا وَ وَضَعَ يَدَهُ عَلَى لِحْيَتِهِ وَ رَأْسِهِ فَلَمَّا أَدْبَرَ ابْنُ مُلْجَمٍ عَنْهُ مُنْصَرِفاً قَالَ ع مُتَمَثِّلا:

اشْدُدْ حَيَازِيمَكَ لِلْمَوْت     فَإِنَّ الْمَوْتَ لَاقِيك

وَ لَا تَجْزَعْ مِنَ الْمَوْت     إِذَا حَلَّ بِوَادِيك

Amongst things that Ali [AS] said before this event and implies that he already knew about that event, is the narrative that “Amer ibn Vathelah” quotes: when Ali [AS] called upon people for allegiance, “Abdul Rahman ibn muljam muradi” came to Ali [AS] for allegiance, Ali [AS] rejected him two or three times [didn’t accept his allegiance] then swore an allegiance to him and told him: what has stopped the most miserable person of the nation? Swear to god that you’ll pigment this- and put his hand on his head and beards- and as soon as “Ibn muljam” left, Ali [AS] read two verses:

Get Ready for death, because death will come to you, and when it’s time, don’t show impatience.

Second narratives:

وَ رَوَى الْحَسَنُ بْنُ مَحْبُوبٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَمْزَةَ الثُّمَالِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ السَّبِيعِيِّ عَنِ الْأَصْبَغِ بْنِ نُبَاتَةَ قَالَ: أَتَى ابْنُ مُلْجَمٍ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع فَبَايَعَهُ فِيمَنْ بَايَعَ ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ عَنْهُ فَدَعَاهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع فَتَوَثَّقَ مِنْهُ وَ تَوَكَّدَ عَلَيْهِ أَلَّا يَغْدِرَ وَ لَا يَنْكُثَ فَفَعَلَ ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ عَنْهُ فَدَعَاهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع الثَّانِيَةَ فَتَوَثَّقَ مِنْهُ وَ تَوَكَّدَ عَلَيْهِ أَلَّا يَغْدِرَ وَ لَا يَنْكُثَ فَفَعَلَ ثُمَّ أَدْبَرَ عَنْهُ فَدَعَاهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع الثَّالِثَةَ فَتَوَثَّقَ مِنْهُ وَ تَوَكَّدَ عَلَيْهِ أَلَّا يَغْدِرَ وَ لَا يَنْكُثَ فَقَالَ ابْنُ مُلْجَمٍ وَ اللَّهِ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ مَا رَأَيْتُكَ فَعَلْتَ هَذَا بِأَحَدٍ غَيْرِي فَقَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عليه السلام:‏

أُرِيدُ حِياَتهُ وَ يُرِيدُ قَتْلِي                    عَذِيرَكَ‏ مِنْ خَلِيلِكَ مِنْ مُرَادٍ

امْضِ يَا ابْنَ مُلْجَمٍ فَوَ اللَّهِ مَا أَرَى أَنْ تَفِيَ بِمَا قُلْتَ

“Hasan ibn Mahbub” quotes from “Asbagh ibn nabatah”: “Ibn Muljem” came and swore an allegiance to Ali [AS], he was leaving that Ali [AS] called upon him for the second time and took allegiance from him and emphasized to him to keep this allegiance, and he accepted and was leaving that Ali [AS] called upon him for the third time and took allegiance from him and said to him: don’t break your allegiance. “Ibn muljam” said: commander of faithful, I didn’t see that you treat someone this way. Ali [AS] said: I want his life but he wills to kill me. Bring someone to make excuse to you for your brother [allusion to the certain determination of “Ibn muljam”. It means we can’t bring any excuse for him and he’ll do his job].  O’ “Ibn muljam” go, swear to god you will break your word.

Third narrative:

وَ رَوَى جَعْفَرُ بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ الضُّبَعِيُّ عَنِ الْمُعَلَّى بْنِ زِيَادٍ قَالَ: جَاءَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مُلْجَمٍ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَسْتَحْمِلُهُ فَقَالَ يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ احْمِلْنِي فَنَظَرَ إِلَيْهِ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع ثُمَّ قَالَ لَهُ أَنْتَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مُلْجَمٍ الْمُرَادِيُّ قَالَ نَعَمْ ثُمَّ قَالَ أَنْتَ‏ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ مُلْجَمٍ الْمُرَادِيُّ قَالَ نَعَمْ قَالَ يَا غَزْوَانُ احْمِلْهُ عَلَى الْأَشْقَرِ فَجَاءَ بِفَرَسٍ أَشْقَرَ فَرَكِبَهُ ابْنُ مُلْجَمٍ الْمُرَادِيُّ وَ أَخَذَ بِعِنَانِهِ فَلَمَّا وَلَّى قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عليه السلام:‏

أُرِيدُ حِبَاءَهُ وَ يُرِيدُ قَتْلِي‏           عَذِيرَكَ مِنْ خَلِيلِكَ مِنْ مُرَادٍ

قَالَ فَلَمَّا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ مَا كَانَ وَ ضَرَبَ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع قُبِضَ عَلَيْهِ وَ قَدْ خَرَجَ مِنَ الْمَسْجِدِ فَجِي‏ءَ بِهِ إِلَى أَمِيرِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَقَالَ ع وَ اللَّهِ لَقَدْ كُنْتُ أَصْنَعُ بِكَ مَا أَصْنَعُ وَ أَنَا أَعْلَمُ أَنَّكَ قَاتِلِي وَ لَكِنْ كُنْتُ أَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ بِكَ لِأَسْتَظْهِرَ بِاللَّهِ عَلَيْكَ.

“Ja’afar ibn suliman” quotes from “mu’ala ibn zyad”: “Ibn muljam moradi” [may god curse him] came to Ali [AS] and ask him to help him riding horse, Ali [AS] looked at him and said: are you “Abd Al rahman ibn muljam muradi”? He said yes I’m. Ali [AS] asked him again, and he said: yes I’m “Ibn muLjam”. Ali said: “Ghazvan” put him on a red horse. “Ghazvan” brought a red horse and “Ibn muljam” road on it and moved. Before moving Ali [AS] said this poem:

I want his life and he wills to kill me. Bring someone to make excuse to you for your brother.

Narrator says: after “Ibn muljam” committed that crime and hit the head of commander of faithful by sword, he was caught out of the mosque, was taken to Ali [AS], he told “Ibn muljam” swear to god I would do you favor and was gentle with you despite of I knew you’ll kill me but I did good deed toward you to get help from god performing ultimatum to you.

Fourth narrative:

[و من الأخبار التي جاءت بنعيه نفسه ع إلى أهله و أصحابه قبل قتله‏] مَا رَوَاهُ أَبُو زَيْدٍ الْأَحْوَلُ عَنِ الْأَجْلَحِ عَنْ أَشْيَاخِ كِنْدَةَ قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُمْ أَكْثَرَ مِنْ عِشْرِينَ مَرَّةً يَقُولُونَ‏ سَمِعْنَا عَلِيّاً ع عَلَى الْمِنْبَرِ يَقُولُ مَا يَمْنَعُ أَشْقَاهَا أَنْ يَخْضِبَهَا مِنْ فَوْقِهَا بِدَمٍ وَ يَضَعُ يَدَهُ عَلَى لِحْيَتِهِ عليه السلام

And amongst narratives that Ali [AS] informed his descendants and companions about his martyrdom before getting killed, is the narrative that “Abu zeid” quotes from “Ajlah” and he quotes from the elders of “Kandeh” tribe that: I heard from them more than ten times saying: we heard from Ali [AS] on the pulpit while touching his beards: what can stop the most miserable of this nation who’ll pigment my beards by the blood of my head.

Fifth narrative:

وَ رَوَى عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحَزَوَّرِ عَنِ الْأَصْبَغِ بْنِ نُبَاتَةَ قَالَ: خَطَبَنَا أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع فِي الشَّهْرِ الَّذِي قُتِلَ فِيهِ فَقَالَ أَتَاكُمْ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ وَ هُوَ سَيِّدُ الشُّهُورِ وَ أَوَّلُ السَّنَةِ وَ فِيهِ تَدُورُ رَحَى السُّلْطَانِ أَلَا وَ إِنَّكُمْ حَاجٌّ الْعَامَ صَفّاً وَاحِداً وَ آيَةُ ذَلِكَ أَنِّي لَسْتُ فِيكُمْ قَالَ فَهُوَ يَنْعَى نَفْسَهُ ع وَ نَحْنُ لَا نَدْرِي‏.

Ali ibn Hazur” quotes from “Asbagh ibn nabatah”: Ali [AS] read sermon for us in the same month that he got martyred and said: month of Ramadan has come up and this month is the beginning of the year, in this month the mill of reign is circulated, be aware that in this month you’ll perform “hajj” in one line [without leader], and one of its sign is that I won’t be among you. “Asbagh” says: Ali [AS] informed us from his martyrdom but we didn’t know.

Sixth narrative:

وَ رَوَى الْفَضْلُ بْنُ دُكَيْنٍ عَنْ حَيَّانَ بْنِ الْعَبَّاسِ عَنْ عُثْمَانَ بْنِ الْمُغِيرَةِ قَالَ: لَمَّا دَخَلَ شَهْرُ رَمَضَانَ كَانَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع يَتَعَشَّى لَيْلَةً عِنْدَ الْحَسَنِ وَ لَيْلَةً عِنْدَ الْحُسَيْنِ وَ لَيْلَةً عِنْدَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ (عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ العَباس) وَ كَانَ لَا يَزِيدُ عَلَى ثَلَاثِ لُقَمٍ فَقِيلَ لَهُ فِي لَيْلَةٍ مِنْ تِلْكَ اللَّيَالِي فِي ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ يَأْتِينِي أَمْرُ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَا خَمِيصٌ إِنَّمَا هِيَ لَيْلَةٌ أَوْ لَيْلَتَانِ فَأُصِيبَ ع فِي آخِرِ اللَّيْلِ‏.

Fazl ibn dakin” quotes from “Osman ibn Muqairah”: when month of Ramadan came up Commander of faithful [AS] would eat dinner with Imam Hasan one night, as well as he would eat dinner with Imam Hussein and “Abdu Allah ibn abbas” separately, and didn’t used to eat more than three morsels. He was asked about the reason of eating a little, Ali [as] said: death will come to me, I want my stomach to be empty and hungry at that time and only one or two nights are left. And at last he was hit on the head while saying morning prayer.

Seventh narrative:

وَ رَوَى إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ زِيَادٍ قَالَ حَدَّثَتْنِي أُمُّ مُوسَى خَادِمَةُ عَلِيٍ‏ ع وَ هِيَ حَاضِنَةُ فَاطِمَةَ ابْنَتِهِ ع قَالَتْ‏ سَمِعْتُ عَلِيّاً ع يَقُولُ لِابْنَتِهِ أُمِّ كُلْثُومٍ يَا بُنَيَّةِ إِنِّي أَرَانِي قَلَّ مَا أَصْحَبُكُمْ قَالَتْ وَ كَيْفَ ذَلِكَ يَا أَبَتَاهْ قَالَ إِنِّي رَأَيْتُ نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ ص فِي مَنَامِي وَ هُوَ يَمْسَحُ الْغُبَارَ عَنْ وَجْهِي وَ يَقُولُ يَا عَلِيُّ لَا عَلَيْكَ قَدْ قَضَيْتَ مَا عَلَيْكَ قَالَتْ فَمَا مَكَثْنَا إِلَّا ثَلَاثاً حَتَّى ضُرِبَ تِلْكَ الضَّرْبَةَ فَصَاحَتْ أُمُّ كُلْثُومٍ فَقَالَ يَا بُنَيَّةِ لَا تَفْعَلِي فَإِنِّي أَرَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص يُشِيرُ إِلَيَّ بِكَفِّهِ يَا عَلِيُّ هَلُمَّ إِلَيْنَا فَإِنَّ مَا عِنْدَنَا هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكَ‏.

Esmael ibn ziyad” says: “Umm Musa” the maid of Ali [AS] quotes: I heard that Ali [AS] said to his daughter “Umm Kulthoom” [the nickname of “Zainab” [AS]: my little girl, it seems like I’ll be with you for short period, she said: why my father? He said: I saw Prophet [PBUH] in my dream and he removed dust from over my face and said: O’ Ali, you’re no longer in charge, you’ve done your duties. “Umm Kulthoom” says: three nights passed of that night that hit was hit on the head, “Umm Kulthoom” shouted for that disaster, Ali [AS] said: don’t shout my little girl, I’m seeing prophet [PBUH] who is mentioning me and says: Ali [AS] come to us that what we have is better for you.

Eighth narrative:

وَ رَوَى عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُوسَى عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ دِينَارٍ عَنِ الْحَسَنِ الْبَصْرِيِّ قَالَ: سَهِرَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع فِي اللَّيْلَةِ الَّتِي قُتِلَ‏ فِي صَبِيحَتِهَا وَ لَمْ يَخْرُجْ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ لِصَلَاةِ اللَّيْلِ عَلَى عَادَتِهِ فَقَالَتْ لَهُ ابْنَتُهُ أُمُّ كُلْثُومٍ رَحْمَةُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا مَا هَذَا الَّذِي قَدْ أَسْهَرَكَ فَقَالَ إِنِّي مَقْتُولٌ لَوْ قَدْ أَصْبَحْتُ وَ أَتَاهُ ابْنُ النَّبَّاحِ فَآذَنَهُ‏ بِالصَّلَاةِ فَمَشَى غَيْرَ بَعِيدٍ ثُمَّ رَجَعَ فَقَالَتْ لَهُ ابْنَتُهُ أُمُّ كُلْثُومٍ مُرْ جَعْدَةَ فَلْيُصَلِّ بِالنَّاسِ قَالَ نَعَمْ مُرُوا جَعْدَةَ فَلْيُصَلِ‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ لَا مَفَرَّ مِنَ الْأَجَلِ فَخَرَجَ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ وَ إِذَا هُوَ بِالرَّجُلِ قَدْ سَهِرَ لَيْلَتَهُ كُلَّهَا يَرْصُدُهُ فَلَمَّا بَرَدَ السَّحَرُ نَامَ فَحَرَّكَهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع بِرِجْلِهِ وَ قَالَ لَهُ الصَّلَاةَ فَقَامَ إِلَيْهِ فَضَرَبَه‏.

Hsaan Basri” says: the night that Ali [AS] got martyred at its dawn, Ali [AS] stayed up and didn’t go to the masque for night prayer on the contrary of his habitation, his daughter said: what has deprived you of sleeping? He said: I’ll get killed today, “Ibn nabah” came and said “ morning prayer Azan”, Ali [AS] walked toward masque and returned, “Umm kulthoom” said to Ali [AS]: order “Judah” to say prayer with people instead of you. He said: yes, order him to do so!, then said: there is no escape    of death and went to the masque and that person [Ibn Muljam] was up whole the night at the masque waiting for Ali [AS], when dawn breeze blew he fell asleep. Commander of faithful came to the masque, woke him up and said: it’s time to prayer he got up and hit Ali [AS].

Ninth narrative:

وَ رُوِيَ فِي حَدِيثٍ آخَرَ أَنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع سَهِرَ تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ فَأَكْثَرَ الْخُرُوجَ وَ النَّظَرَ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَ هُوَ يَقُولُ وَ اللَّهِ مَا كَذَبْتُ وَ لَا كُذِبْتُ وَ إِنَّهَا اللَّيْلَةُ الَّتِي وُعِدْتُ بِهَا ثُمَّ يُعَاوِدُ مَضْجَعَهُ فَلَمَّا طَلَعَ الْفَجْرُ شَدَّ إِزَارَهُ‏ وَ خَرَجَ  ... فَلَمَّا خَرَجَ إِلَى صَحْنِ الدَّارِ اسْتَقْبَلَتْهُ‏ الْإِوَزُّ فَصِحْنَ

It’s written in another narrative that commander of faithful [AS] didn’t sleep at that night, he would come out a lot looking at the sky and would say: swear to god I didn’t lie and they didn’t lie to me, this is the night that they promised me, then he would go back to his room, when he heard call of the “Azan” he tighten his belt and went out .…  when he went to the yard, ducks went to him and shouted before him. [Those who were at home] got them away. Ali [AS] said: leave them they are eulogists. Then he left the house and was hit on the head [at that night].

Al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Numan Al mufid, (d 413 AH), al ershad in knowing god’s proofs on creaturs , vol. 1, p. 14 to 16, searched by: Institute of Al al-Bayt.

  So, we realized that not only Ali [AS] was aware of his martyrdom, but he knew the details, such as: time and the place of his martyrdom.

Second question:

According to our religious law, saving life is obligatory. Now the question is that why Ali [AS] went to the masque despite his quite knowledge of the time and place of his martyrdom but he didn’t have to go to the masque or at least he should have said to someone to guard him while saying prayer.

Response:

Based on numerous narratives Commander of faithful [AS] aware of his martyrdom, that even some of Sunni reports prove it. It’s an old question, what is gotten from the narratives of Shiite Imams [AS] is that, Ali [AS] is surrendered to god’s order and divine fortuity and his going to the masque and martyrdom are in the line of fulfilling this matter. And his knowledge can’t change the fact, because some times what prophets and Shiite Imams know about, are unchangeable and definitive, it means they will certainly happen and they couldn’t be changed, and according to some of narratives this promise is certain and isn’t lie:

عَهْداً مَعْهُوداً وَ وَعْداً غَيْرَ مَكْذُوبٍ

Some narrative in this regard:

“Hasan ibn Jahm” quotes from Imam Reza [AS]:

عَنِ الْحَسَنِ بْنِ الْجَهْمِ قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِلرِّضَا ع إِنَّ أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ع قَدْ عَرَفَ قَاتِلَهُ وَ اللَّيْلَةَ الَّتِي يُقْتَلُ فِيهَا وَ الْمَوْضِعَ الَّذِي يُقْتَلُ فِيهِ وَ قَوْلُهُ لَمَّا سَمِعَ صِيَاحَ الْإِوَزِّ فِي الدَّارِ صَوَائِحُ تَتْبَعُهَا نَوَائِحُ وَ قَوْلُ أُمِّ كُلْثُومٍ- لَوْ صَلَّيْتَ اللَّيْلَةَ دَاخِلَ الدَّارِ وَ أَمَرْتَ غَيْرَكَ يُصَلِّي بِالنَّاسِ فَأَبَى عَلَيْهَا وَ كَثُرَ دُخُولُهُ وَ خُرُوجُهُ تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةَ بِلَا سِلَاحٍ وَ قَدْ عَرَفَ ع أَنَّ ابْنَ مُلْجَمٍ لَعَنَهُ اللَّهُ قَاتِلُهُ بِالسَّيْفِ كَانَ هَذَا مِمَّا لَمْ يَجُزْ تَعَرُّضُهُ فَقَالَ ذَلِكَ كَانَ وَ لَكِنَّهُ خُيِّرَ فِي تِلْكَ اللَّيْلَةِ لِتَمْضِيَ مَقَادِيرُ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ.

Al kuleini al-Razi, Abu Ja 'far Muhammad ibn Ya 'qub ibn Ishaq (d. 328 AH), al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 259, Publisher: Islamiyah, Tehran.

“Hsan ibn Jahm” says: I told Imam Reza [AS]: Commander of faithful [AS] knew his murderer, the time and place of his death, and when he heard the sound of ducks said: this the  shout of women who have eulogist behind them and when “Umm Kulthoom” told him: I wish that you say prayer at home and send another one for congregational prayer, he didn’t accept and went to the masque without sword despite he knew that “Ibn mulja” will kill him. Imam Reza [AS]: what you said is right but he had authority and he wanted god’s fortuity is conducted.

As you see despite of his martyrdom was definitive but according to this valid narrative, at that night, god tested Ali [AS] and he was given authority to choose martyrdom or living in this world:

وَ لَكِنَّهُ خُيِّرَ

But because Ali [AS] was surrendered to god and was eager to meet god, selected martyrdom.

عَنْ ضُرَيْسٍ الْكُنَاسِيِّ عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ ع قَالَ: قَالَ لَهُ حُمْرَانُ جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ أَ رَأَيْتَ مَا كَانَ مِنْ أَمْرِ عَلِيٍّ وَ الْحَسَنِ وَ الْحُسَيْنِ ع وَ خُرُوجِهِمْ وَ قِيَامِهِمْ بِدِينِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ مَا أُصِيبُوا مِنْ قَتْلِ الطَّوَاغِيتِ إِيَّاهُمْ وَ الظَّفَرِ بِهِمْ حَتَّى قُتِلُوا وَ غُلِبُوا فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ ع يَا حُمْرَانُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَ تَعَالَى قَدْ كَانَ قَدَّرَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَ قَضَاهُ وَ أَمْضَاهُ وَ حَتَمَهُ ثُمَّ أَجْرَاهُ فَبِتَقَدُّمِ عِلْمِ ذَلِكَ إِلَيْهِمْ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ قَامَ عَلِيٌّ وَ الْحَسَنُ وَ الْحُسَيْنُ وَ بِعِلْمٍ صَمَتَ مَنْ صَمَتَ مِنَّا.

Al kuleini al-Razi, Abu Ja 'far Muhammad ibn Ya 'qub ibn Ishaq (d. 328 AH), al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 281, Publisher: Islamiyah, Tehran.

“Humran” said to Imam “Bagher” [AS]: tell me about the matter of the movement of Ali [as] Imam hasan and Hussein [AS] and their rising and applying god’s religion and disasters that they faced and getting killed by rebels and their victory over them till they were killed and failed: “Imam Bagher” [AS] said: god almighty destined those disasters for them, decreed and sealed and made them certain and then applied them [so all of them were with the permission of god] and they put up revolution for the insight and knowledge that they had already gotten from Prophet [PBUH] and any of Shiite Imams that remained silent, it was because they were surrendered to god’s will despite their Knowledge.

عَنْ حَرِيزٍ قَالَ: قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ ع جُعِلْتُ فِدَاكَ مَا أَقَلَّ بَقَاءَكُمْ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ أَقْرَبَ آجَالَكُمْ بَعْضَهَا مِنْ بَعْضٍ مَعَ حَاجَةِ النَّاسِ إِلَيْكُمْ فَقَالَ إِنَّ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِنَّا صَحِيفَةً فِيهَا مَا يَحْتَاجُ إِلَيْهِ أَنْ يَعْمَلَ بِهِ فِي مُدَّتِهِ فَإِذَا انْقَضَى مَا فِيهَا مِمَّا أُمِرَ بِهِ عَرَفَ أَنَّ أَجَلَهُ قَدْ حَضَرَ فَأَتَاهُ النَّبِيُّ ص يَنْعَى إِلَيْهِ نَفْسَهُ‏ وَ أَخْبَرَهُ بِمَا لَهُ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ ...

Al kuleini al-Razi, Abu Ja 'far Muhammad ibn Ya 'qub ibn Ishaq (d. 328 AH), al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 283, Publisher: Islamiyah, Tehran

“Hariz” says to Imam “Sadegh”: despite of people’s need to “Ahl Al bayt” [AS] why is your life so short and the time of your death is very close to each other? Imam Sadegh [AS] said: there is a inscription that what he needs about his work plan during his life time is written there, when orders that Imam was given are done, “Imam” will find out that it’s time of his death. Then Prophet [PBUH] comes to him and informs him of his death and tell him about his ranks which are with god

Conclusion:

What is gotten from narratives is that: not only the martyrdom of Ali [AS] was god’s will but god almighty tested him and gave him authority to choose between martyrdom or living and Ali [AS] chose to meet god.

 



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