Translated by: Muhammad hassan heidary
The implication of the thirtieth verse of surah “AL-BAQARA” on the existence of god’s caliph and proof on the earth till day of resurrection.
One of the most important verses that expresses the need for the existence of divine reason and Shiite view about the existence of Imam Mahdi [AS] as the divine caliph, is the thirtieth verse of surah [chamber] “AL-BAQARA”. Many of Sunni interpreters have admitted to the constant appointment of caliph and reason on the earth, by god, using of the implication of this Holy verse’s words [the appearance of this verse].
In upcoming article, at first, we’ll search about the indication of this verse on the permanent appointment of the divine caliph on the earth, based on Arab literature rules, then we’ll describe affirmation of Shiite and Sunni scholars about the indication of this verse on this matter.
The indication of this verse’s words and letters on permanent appointment of divine caliph till the day of resurrection.
«وَ إِذْ قالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلائِكَةِ إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَليفَةً قالُوا أَ تَجْعَلُ فيها مَنْ يُفْسِدُ فيها وَ يَسْفِكُ الدِّماءَ وَ نَحْنُ نُسَبِّحُ بِحَمْدِكَ وَ نُقَدِّسُ لَكَ قالَ إِنِّي أَعْلَمُ ما لا تَعْلَمُون»
when your lord said to the angels: 'i am placing on the earth a caliph, ' they replied: 'will you put there who corrupts and sheds blood, when we exalt your praises and sanctify you? ' he said: 'i know what you do not know.
Note: act of “Nasb: “the noun after it is object. And act of “Rafe” [the noun after that is subject.]
in this verse god says:” إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَليفَةً. Means: i am placing on the earth a caliph
In this sentence the word"جاعل" Is subject’s noun [in the perspective of “Nahv” science scholars]
“subject’s noun in here is without"ال" And has effected on the word"خلیفه And made it “mansoob”
based on Arab literature and the affirmation of scholars of “Sarf” and “Nahv” sciences, when
And does the act of “Nasb”, implies on the continuity, so subject’s noun comes with out "ال"
the meaning of the verse would be: “I’ll put caliph on the earth constantly. And as it’s clear, according to this part of Holy verse, god will put caliph on the earth constantly [since the creation of “Adam” till resurrection], in other words earth won’t be empty of caliph till day of resurrection and each era will have its own “caliph”. In the rest of this verse god has talked about the first example of this caliphate and divine successor means “ Adam”[AS] and after him, other Prophets and Prophet’s successors, are the examples of divine caliph.
The view of “Arab literature” scholars on this matter.
In continue the view of some of “ nahv” science scholars who affirmed on the implication of subject noun on continuity. After knowing this rule of Arabic rules, the implication of this verse on what was told will be revealed.
MR ”Hadi Nahr” writes in the book: “Nahv” science scholars have talked a lot about this that, subject noun acts like verb and hey have said about its reason that verb and subject noun, both of them imply the occurrence of something , its repetition and continuity.
The name of the book:
“النحو التطبيقي وفقا لمقررات النحو العربي في المعاهد و الجامعات العربية”
«و قد أكثر النحاة في الحديث عن سبب عمل اسم الفاعل في أنّ كلا منهما يدلّ على الحدوث و التجدد و الاستمرار زيادة على توافقهما في المعنى و اللفظ الذي أشار إليه النحاة.»
“Nahv” science scholars have talked about the reason of the act of subject noun [and have said] both [ verb and subject noun] imply occurrence and continuity, and furthermore they’re similar in both meaning and word [ as “Nahv” science scholars point it out].
The view of late “Razi”
As well as, late “Razi” writes in his description on “Al kafi” book, about the indication of subject’s noun and verbal noun on continuity:
«و أمّا اسما الفاعل و المفعول، فعملهما في مرفوع ... جائز مطلقا، سواء كانا بمعنى الماضي أو بمعنى الحال أو بمعنى الاستقبال أو لم يكونا لأحد الأزمنة، بل كانا للإطلاق المستفاد منه الاستمرار، نحو: زيد ضامر بطنه، و مسود وجهه، و مؤدّب خدّامه.»
subject noun and past participle, if they do the act of ”rafe” , it’s permissible in absolute way: whether both of them have the meaning of past or the meaning of present or future or both of them are not for one of these three times but they’re not stipulated [ by one of these three times] which means continuity. Like: he always treats his children.
astar Abadi al-Din Razi, Muhammad ibn Hasan, Razi’s description on al kafi,4 volumes, , Tehran First edition, vol. 2, p. 221.
As it’s clear in above text late “Razi” writes about subject noun and past participle, if they want to do the act of “rafe” [ noun after them is their subject] can do this action in absolute way whether they’re stipulated by one of triple times [ past , present, future] or not [they’re not stipulated by triple times] but they’re absolute and imply continuity. So if subject noun isn’t stipulated by one of triple times [past, present, future] it will be absolute and shows continuity. subject noun in this verse is absolute and hasn’t been stipulated by one of triple times for instance, god hasn’t said:
. “انی جاعل فی الارض خلیفة الان”
I put caliph on the earth for present time [now]
But he’s said in absolute way, that I put caliph on the earth so it implies continuity and shows that god puts caliph and successor on the earth till the day of resurrection, continuity.
In another place, late “Razi” talks about this that subject noun does the act of “Nasb” [noun after subject noun is its object]:
«و أمّا عمل اسمي الفاعل و المفعول، في المفعول به، و غيره من المعمولات الفعلية، فمحتاج إلى شرط، لكونها أجنبية؛ و هو مشابهتهما للفعل معنى، و وزنا، و يحصل هذا الشرط لهما، إذا كانا بمعنى الحال أو الاستقبال، أو الإطلاق المفيد للاستمرار.»
The act of subject noun and object noun and other objects needs a condition , because these objects are stranger with subject noun and past participle and condition is the similarity between subject noun and past participle with verb in meaning. And this condition is for subject noun and past participle if they have the meaning of present or future or they’re absolute that shows continuity.
astar Abadi al-Din Razi, Muhammad ibn Hasan, Razi’s description on al kafi,4 volumes, , Tehran First edition, vol. 2, p. 221.
In the previous text late “Razi” talked about the time that subject noun and past participle do the act of “Rafe [ noun after them is subject], but in the above text talked about the time that they want to do the act of “Nasb” [none after them is object]. He says they can do the act of “Nasb” if they don’t have the meaning of past but the meaning of present or future or they’re absolute which shows continuity.
“and خلیفه" “ is subject noun and has acted in the word جاعل” And in this verse the word
Has made it “mansoob” [object] and because subject name in this verse isn’t stipulated by one of triple times [past, present and future] is absolute and implies on continuity. It means “I put caliph on the earth constantly, and this continuity makes the subject noun to do the act of “Nasb”[ name after that is object]. On the other hand on based on the text of late “Razi” subject noun in the verse will imply the time, because it can do the act “Nasb”[ name after it is object] it’s like verb and this similarity is whether in this that has the meaning of present or future or it’s absolute that implies continuity, other than these three cases, subject noun can’t do the act “Nasb” so no one can claim that this verse doesn’t imply the time.
From what we said we find out two points:
1: because [in the verse] subject noun has done the act of “Nasb” [noun after it is object] should imply the time .2: because subject noun is absolute [not stipulated] implies continuity and shows that putting caliph and successor on the earth is permanent.
M.R “Ahmad ibn Qasem al-Sabagh” one of Sunni scholars has written a treatise called “a treatise about subject noun that implies continuity in all times [past, present, future] and has searched about the implication of subject noun on continuity if it’s absolute [not stipulated]. He’s said what late “Razi” said in above texts.
Ahmad ibn Qassim al-Sabbagh al-Abadi al-Mesri, treatise of subject name, Dar Al-Furqan publishing and destribution - Oman, first edition searched by: Muhammad Hasan.
The view of “Sakaki”
He’s an important Sunni scholar. He says in his book that subject noun will act if it’s the meaning of future, present or implies continuity.
«اسم الفاعل: كيف كان، مفردا أو مثنى أو مجموعا جمع تكسير أو تصحيح، نكرة في جميع ذلك، أو معرفة ظاهرا أو مقدرا، مقدما أو مؤخرا، يعمل عمل فعله المبني للفاعل، إذا كان على أحد زماني ما يجري هو عليه، و هو المضارع دون المضي أو الاستمرار.»
Subject noun whether it’s singular or “Muthana plural” or “ Mukasar plural” or “Salem plural” or “indefinite", and whether it’s “apparent definiteness” or “hidden definiteness” whether it’s “precede” or “posterior, in all these forms subject noun will act like it’s verb provided it’s the one of times of the verb [present or future] or implies continuity.
Sakaki, Y. ibn Abu Bakr, Miftah al-olum, - Beirut - Lebanon Printing: First, Page 197
The permanent implication of subject noun on continuity if it has Nunation.
Some of “Nahv” science scholars have affirmed that if subject noun doesn’t come with “ال” like:”الضارب” or has not been added like: ضاربُ زیدٍbut comes with nunation like : ضاربٌ always do the act of ”Nasb” and implies continuity.
“Afif Damascene” writes:
«ان اسم الفاعل «المنوّن» يعمل النصب دائما و أنه في اساسه غير محدّد بزمن؛ لأن فيه معنى الاستمرار.»
Subject noun with nunation always does the act of “Nasb” and is not limited to any time because it’s continuity.
Damascus, Afif Dar al-elm lel malamin - Beirut - Lebanon, Second Edition, Page 140
Several points have been affirmed in the above text:1: subject noun with nunation always does the act of “Nasb” 2: the principle in this kind of subject noun is not to be stipulated by time and implies continuity. This is the same point that we already said: if subject noun is absolute not stipulated, implies continuity and this is the principle of subject noun, unless it’s stipulated that will in this case it’ll imply that particular time. In this Holy verse:
“انی جاعلٌ فی الارض خلیفة”
Subject noun is with nunation and is not stipulated by triple times, so based on the principle in subject noun it implies continuity in all times. As many of Sunni and Shiite interpreters have affirmed this Holy verse implies continuity of appointing divine caliph.
1: “Alusi” in the book “sprits of meanings” [interpretation of Holy Quran]:
He’s among the Sunni famous interpreters and interpretation is the most comprehensive interpretations. He writes about this Holy verse:
“لكن لقصور المستخلف عليه لما أنه في غاية الكدورة و الظلمة الجسمانية و ذاته تعالى في غاية التقدس و المناسبة شرط في قبول الفيض على ما جرت به العادة الإلهية فلا بد من متوسط ذي جهتي تجرد و تعلق ليستفيض من جهة و يفيض بأخرى ... و عند أهل اللّه تعالى المراد بالخليفة آدم و هو عليه السلام خليفة اللّه تعالى و أبو الخلفاء و المجلى له سبحانه و تعالى، و الجامع لصفتي جماله و جلاله، ... و به جمعت الأضداد و كملت النشأة و ظهر الحق، و لم تزل تلك الخلافة في الإنسان الكامل إلى قيام الساعة و ساعة القيام بل متى فارق هذا الإنسان العالم مات العالم لأنه الروح الذي به قوامه، فهو العماد المعنوي للسماء، و الدار الدنيا جارحة من جوارح جسد العالم الذي الإنسان روحه. و لما كان هذا الاسم الجامع قابل الحضرتين بذاته صحت له الخلافة و تدبير العالم.»
But because those who caliph was put for them [human] are at depth of darkness corporality and god almighty is at the height of holiness and based on divine tradition the existence of mediator [ between god and one who receives grace] is the condition of accepting grace so it’s necessary to be a mediator between god and creatures to have both Celibacy and worldly attachments to receive grace from god giving it to the creatures……and among god’s creatures this caliph “Adam” [AS] who is the father of god’s successors and manifestation of god and the holder of his beauty and glory characteristics and via him truth was revealed and creation was completed and this caliphate will exist in perfect human till the day of resurrection, but if this human – god’s caliph – doesn’t exist, everything will be destroyed because god’s caliph is the spirit of the cosmos which its existence depends on him and he [god’s caliph] is the spiritual pillar of sky and world is part of cosmos that this perfect human is its spirit and because this god’s comprehensive name [ perfect human and divine caliph] has the capability of both this world and heavenly world, can take over the running of cosmos [divine caliph].
Seyed Mahmoud al-Alousy-spirit of meanings in interpretation of Holy Quran, vol. 1, pp. 222-223, Dar al kotob Al elmia, Beirut, 1415 AH, first edition, researcher: Ali Abdul atia..
As it’s clear, not only “Alousi” determined the personality of divine caliph and knows him the appearance and the manifestation of god’s attributes but he restates that this divine caliph will exist on the earth till day of resurrection and perfect human is the example of divine caliph on earth. So “Alousi” believes [based on this Holy verse] the existence of divine caliph at any time, and he must be perfect human.
Sunni famous scholar Mohyi-al -Din Ibn Arabi”
He restates that “Emamat” exist in “Adam’s [AS] descendants and the goal of creating is perfect human [divine caliph] and this caliph must exist in any era and if doesn’t exist for a moment all the cosmos and sun and moon will be destroyed and sky will fall down and it’s perfect human that keeps whole the world. Following is part of his text:
«خلق آدم عليه السلام الإنسان الكامل الأول، و الخليفة الأول، باليدين و على الصورة الإلهية: لما أراد اللّه بالإنسان الخلافة و الإمامة بدأ بإيجاد العالم، و هيأه و سواه و عدله و رتبه مملكة قائمة، فلما استعد لقبول أن يكون مأموما أنشأ اللّه جسم الإنسان الطبيعي و نفخ فيه من الروح الإلهي، فخلقه على صورته لأجل الاستخلاف، فظهر بجسمه فكان المسمى آدم فجعله في الأرض خليفة، و كان من أمره و حاله مع الملائكة ما ذكر اللّه في كتابه لنا، و جعل الإمامة في بنيه إلى يوم القيامة، فالإنسان الكامل هو المقصود الذي به عمرت الدنيا و قامت، و إذا رحل عنها زالت الدنيا، و مارت السماء، و انتثرت النجوم، و كورت الشمس، و سيرت الجبال، و عطلت العشار، و سجرت البحار، و ذهبت الدار الدنيا بآخرها، و انتقلت العمارة إلى الدار الآخرة، بانتقال الإنسان، ... و اعلم أن اللّه جمع لنشأة جسد آدم بين يديه فقال «لما خلقت بيدي» فإنه لما أراد اللّه كمال هذه النشأة الإنسانية جمع لها بين يديه، و أعطاها جميع حقائق العالم، و تجلى لها في الأسماء كلها، فحازت الصورة الإلهية، و الصورة الكونية، و جعلها روحا للعالم و جعل أصناف العالم له كالأعضاء من الجسم للروح المدبرة له، فلو فارق العالم هذا الإنسان مات العالم، فالدار الدنيا جارحة من جوارح جسد العالم الذي الإنسان روحه، فلما قابل الإنسان الحضرتين بذاته (الحضرة الإلهية و الحضرة الكونية) صحت له الخلافة، و تدبير العالم ... و أنزله خليفة عنه في أرضه، و الخليفة معلوم أنه لا يظهر إلا بصفة من استخلفه، فلا مخلوق أعظم رحمة من الإنسان الكامل الذي هو مجلى حقائق العالم، فهو آخر نوع ظهر، فأوليته حق و آخريته خلق ... .»
God created “Adam” [AS] as the first perfect human and caliph on the earth with two hands and divine appearance.
When god wanted to put caliphate and “Emamat” in human, began to create this cosmos and created as a stable and lasting territory and when it was ready to be follower, god created the body of human and blew from his divine spirit to that body and crated it for succession and human emerged with his body and was called “Adam” [AS] and got put him the caliph on the earth, and events happened between him and angles that god has expressed them in his book and god has put “Emamat” in “Adam’s [AS]descendant till day of resurrection.
So, perfect human is the same target that world has been created for that and if it doesn’t exist world, moon and sun will be destroyed and stars will be scattered and sun will shut down and mountains will move and valuable properties will be abandoned and seas will roar and world will end and prosperities will be transited to the day of resurrection after the transition of human…. And know that god crated “Adam” by his own hands and says:” when I created by my own hand” and when god willed the perfection of this human creature “Adam”, created by his own hand and gave him all facts of the cosmos and manifested all names for him that’s why he got both divine and earthy and put him the spirit of the world and allocated all kind of creatures for this spirit [like body members], so if this perfect human doesn’t exist in this world, it’ll be demolished, thus this world is a member of a body that human is its ghost.
And when perfect human is both divine and earthy, will deserve to be god’s caliph and runs the world….. And god sent “Adam” to the earth as his successor and it’s clear that caliph should have the same characteristic that as the one whom select him as successor, so there is no more perfect creature than perfect human who is the manifestation of the world’s facts and he’s the last type that will be manifested, its first is truth and its end is creation…..”
Mohii al-Din Ibn Arabic in the interpretation of holy Quran, vol. 1, p. 96, nasr press, Damascus, 1410 AH, printing, researcher: Mahmoud qarab.
As it’s clear, what “Ibn arabi” has said contains several points:
1: “Adam” [AS] is the successor and caliph of god and “Emamat” will be in his descendant till day of resurrection.
2: all the world and creatures have been created for caliphs and successors of god and if they don’t exist, all the world will demolish at once.
3: the successor of god knows all knowledge and facts and is the manifestation of all divine names and characteristics
4: running entire world –with the permission of god- is in the hand s of god’s successor and caliph.
nication with him directly and there should be mediators among people who are, from one side divine and from other side creature and the mediator is god’s caliph that exist in any period .
And as he said, god’s caliph can’t be an average human but he’s such high personality that god almighty has created the world because of him and without him it’ll be destroyed.
“Ibn arabibic” after this potent and exact discussion, says that god’s caliph must be one person at any time can’t be multiple.
الخليفة واحد: جمع الأنام على إمام واحد عين الدليل على الإله الواحد
قال اللّه عز و جل: (وَ إِلهُكُمْ إِلهٌ واحِدٌ) و قال تعالى: (لَوْ كانَ فِيهِما آلِهَةٌ إِلَّا اللَّهُ لَفَسَدَتا) و قال سبحانه: (إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً) و قال رسول اللّه صلّى اللّه عليه و سلم: إذا بويع لخليفتين فاقتلوا الآخر منهما و قال صلّى اللّه عليه و سلم: [الخلفاء من قريش] و التقريش التقبض و الاجتماع، كذلك الإمام إن لم يكن متصفا بأخلاق من استخلفه جامعا لها مما يحتاج من استخلف عليهم و إلا فلا تصح خلافته، فهو الواحد المجموع.»
Caliph must be one: god has collected people around one “Imam” and has put him the reason and guide towards god. God almighty says” your god is one, if there were several gods on the earth and in the heaven, indeed, they would’ve become corrupted and I have put caliph on the earth continuously…” if the “Imam” doesn’t have all the characteristics that god has, his caliphate would be wrong, so divine caliph should have all divine characteristic
Mohye al-Din Ibn Arabic in the interpretation of holy Quran, vol. 1, p. 107, nasr press, Damascus, 1410 AH, first edition, researcher: Mahmoud qarab.
So god’s caliph must be the manifestation of all divine characteristics and should have anything that is necessary to run the world that why there is only one “Imam” at any time and as god in solo, one who guides people towards him must be one as well.
In continue “Ibn Arabic” deals with this matter that caliphs exist on the earth one after another one and has restated that god’s caliphs are on the earth continuously, at first Prophets [AS] were on the earth as god’s caliphs and after them god’s successors exist on the earth continuously:
«تتابع الخلفاء في الأرض اعلم أن اللّه تعالى لما شاء أن يجعل في أرضه خلفاء على من يعمرها من الإنس و الجان و جميع الحيوانات، و قدمهم و رشحهم للإمامة دون غيرهم من جنسهم جعل بينه و بينهم سفيرا و هو الروح الأمين، و سخر لهم ما في السموات من ملك و كوكب سابح في فلك، و ما في الأرض و ما بينهما من الخلق جميعا منه، و أباح لهم جميع ما في الأرض أن يتصرفوا فيه، و أيد هؤلاء الخلفاء بالآيات البينات ليعلم المرسلون إليهم أن هؤلاء خلفاء اللّه عليهم، و مكنهم من الحكم في رعيتهم بالأسماء الإلهية على وجه يسمى التعلق، و شرع لهم في نفوسهم شرائع، و حد لهم حدودا، و رسم لهم مراسم، ... في منزلة الرسل خلفاء من عند اللّه، ... فمن هؤلاء النواب من يكشف اللّه عنه الغطاء فيكون من أهل العين و الشهود، فيدعو إلى اللّه على بصيرة، كما دعا رسول اللّه صلّى اللّه عليه و سلم، و لولا أن الزمان اقتضى أن لا يكون مشرع بعد رسول اللّه صلّى اللّه عليه و سلم لكان هؤلاء مشرعين، و إن لم يأتوا إلا بشرع رسول اللّه صلّى اللّه عليه و سلم، ... و لا يتمكن لهذا الخليفة المشعور به و غير المشعور به أن يقوم في الخلافة إلا بعد أن يحصل معاني حروف أوائل السور سور القرآن المعجمة، مثل «ألف لا م ميم» و غيرها الواردة في أوائل بعض سور القرآن، فإذا أوقفه اللّه على حقائقها و معانيها تعينت له الخلافة، و كان أهلا للنيابة، هذا في علمه بظاهر هذه الحروف، و أما علمه بباطنها فعلى تلك المدرجة يرجع إلى الحق فيها، فيقف على أسرارها و معانيها من الاسم الباطن إلى أن يصل إلى غايتها ... و لا يكون في الزمان إلا واحدا ... و هو الذي ينفرد الحق و يخلو به دون خلقه، فإذا فارق هيكله المنور انفرد بشخص آخر لا ينفرد بشخصين في زمان واحد، و ذلك العبد عين اللّه في كل زمان، لا ينظر الحق في زمانه إلا إليه.»
Know that when god wanted to put caliphs and successors on the earth for human, jinn and all animals and select these caliphs for “Emamat” not others, put a mediator between himself and these caliphs[ Prophets] and that’s “Gabriel [AS]” and go has subdued what is in the heavens including angles and stars that are turning in their orbit, for his caliphs and has put everything on the earth for them to use of them as they wish and has confirmed them by clear signs till anyone knows that they’re god’s successors and has put for his caliphs the governing on people with divine power and has put religious law and divine rules and particular rituals for them….. And successors who are appointed by god are like these Prophets [AS] …..and god has removed the curtain for some of these successors so that they can see the truth and have intuition and invite people to god with insight as Prophet [PBUH] would do so and they would make religious law if it hadn’t been done after prophet [PBUH] … and it’s impossible that god’s caliph - absent or present among people- to caliphate unless he’s the knowledge of broken letters which are at the first of some Holy Quran surah [chamber] like: surah AL-BAQARA [first verse], and when god aware him of the facts and the meaning of these broken letters, will be selected for divine caliph and competent for succession.
This is the knowledge quality of divine caliph over the appearance of these words, but living up their inside, is the same thing through which they discover the fact of these words and find out the inside secrets and meanings of these words and will reach to ultimate of these secrets….. and this caliph is only one person in each period and others are not real caliphs and after death another person will take his place and it’s impossible that two caliphs exist at the same time and he’s the eyes of god, truth couldn’t be seen unless via him.
Mohye al-Din Ibn Arabic in the interpretation of holy Quran, vol. 1, p. 107, nasr press, Damascus, 1410 AH, first edition, researcher: Mahmoud qarab.
As It’s clear that several points have been restated in this text.
1: god has created anything in the heavens and on the heavens for his caliphs and has let them to run and hold them.
2: Prophets [AS] are the first caliphs of god and Gabriel [AS] is the mediator between them and god.
3: after Prophets there is successor on the earth who is like Prophets and all divine knowledge and facts have been given to him and can even bring religious law but he wasn’t entrusted to do so.
4: one of his features is this that he knows the appearance and inside knowledge of these broken words and with this knowledge he knows all the facts of the world.
5: this truth is discovered only by these caliphs and divine successors.
The summery of “Ibn arabic’s affirmations:
“Mohye al din” relying on this Holy verse, believes that “Emamat” till day of resurrection and in each era there is only one ”Imam” and god’s caliph on the earth who is perfect human and the manifestation of all divine characteristics.
“Haghi burseri” in “Rooh Al bayan” interpretation.
He’s another Sunni interpreter and has restated that god’s caliph exists on the earth in any period and god keeps [save] the world by him:
«اعلم ان اللّه تعالى يحفظ العالم بالخليفة كما يحفظ الخزائن بالختم و هو القطب الذي لا يكون في كل عصر الا واحدا فالبدء كان بآدم عليه السلام و الختام يكون بعيسى عليه السلام و الحكمة في الاستخلاف قصور المستخلف عليه عن قبول فيضه و تلقى امره بغير واسطة لان المفيض تعالى في غاية التنزه و التقدس و المستفيض منغمس غالبا في العلائق الدنيئة كالاكل و الشرب و غيرهما و العوائق الطبيعية كالاوصاف الذميمة فالاستفاضة منه انما تحصل بواسطة ذى جهتين اى ذى جهة التجرد وجهة التعلق و هو الخليفة أيا كان و لذا لم يستنبئ اللّه ملكا فان البشر لا يقدر على الاستفادة منه لكونه خلاف جنسه.»
“Know that god keeps the world by caliph and successor as treasuries are kept by amulet and he’s the pole and axil of the world who is only one person in each period.
The beginning of caliphate by “Adam” [AS] and ended by “Jesus” [AS] [in mentions some Sunni narratives that one will arise at the end of the world and fill the world with justice, and person is “Jesus”.
These narrative have been objected by Sunni scholars and they’ve restated that these narratives are against successive narratives that shows that “Imam Mahdi” [AS] will arise and fill the world with justice and “Jesus” [AS] will follow him] but the reason that put caliph on the earth is this that creatures whom this caliph has been appointed for them, can’t receive god’s grace without mediator, because god is at ultimate sanctification and purification and those who receive grace are mostly immersed in worldly attachments like: eating, drinking and … and worldly attachments are like bad traits and reaching to the god’s grace needs mediators who have both sides of celibacy and independence.
[it means they should both sides to be compatible with divine celibacy to receive grace from god and from another side he must be corporeal and material to communicate with the creatures and bring grace for them] and mediator is god’s caliph that’s why not of angles are Prophet, because creatures are not capable to use of angle due to their different gender….”
Ismail Haghi bursuri , interpretation of spirit of Bayan, vol. 1, p. 94, Dar al-Fekr, Beirut first edition
Sunni famous exegete “ ghertebi “ [comprehensive interpretation of Quran decrees.]
He says in his about this verse in his exegesis book that the view of all Islamic nation and all its sects , except some of “Mu 'tazilite” who are incapable of realizing Islamic religious law, is this that the existence of “Imam” and the matter of “Emamat” is a compulsory state and the base in this regard is this Holy verse. In the other word, he believes that the implication of this verse on continuity shows that there must be caliph on the earth at any time and this verse made Sunni scholars to believe in the necessity of the existence of “Imam”:
«الرابعة- هذه الآية أصل في نصب إمام و خليفة يسمع له و يطاع، لتجتمع به الكلمة، و تنفذ به أحكام الخليفة. و لا خلاف في وجوب ذلك بين الامة و لا بين الأئمةإلا ما روي عن الأصم حيث كان عن الشريعة أصم و كذلك كل من قال بقوله و اتبعه على رأيه و مذهبه، قال: إنها غير واجبة في الدين بل يسوغ ذلك ... و دليلنا قول الله تعالى: «إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً» [البقرة: 30] و قوله تعالى: «يا داوُدُ إِنَّا جَعَلْناكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ» [ص: 26] و قال: «وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ» [النور: 55] أي يجعل منهم خلفاء إلى غير ذلك من الآي.»
This verse is the basis in appointing “Imam” and caliph who govern people and what he says should be heard and obeyed till society becomes united and caliph’s rules are conducted and there is no difference between Islamic nation and religion “Imam” in this regard. Just one person from
“Mu 'tazilite” called “Abubakr al-asam” who was unable to realize religious law, it’s been quoted that he would say: “Emamat” is not compulsory in religion but it’s permissible…. And all of those who have followed his ideas are like him. The reasons of Sunni in this matter is this verse:
“انی جاعل فی الارض خلیفه”
Iput caliph on the earth constantly” and says “O’ David, we have made you the caliph earth” and says “Allah has promised those of you who believe and do good works that he will indeed make them successor in the land” it means that god puts caliphs among them.
The comprehensive exegeses of Quran decree Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ahmad al Al qertaby, Dar al-Shaab-Cairo, vol. 1, p. 264
As it’s clear “Gartabi”,relying on these three verses , prove that “Emamat” is necessary matter and according to Holy Quran, god puts caliph on the earth. When he uses of this verse to express the necessity of appointing “Imam” and caliph, it means implicit affirmation to the verse’s implication on continuity. And he restates that those who don’t believe the necessity of “Emaamt” are blind and couldn’t realize religious law.
“Ibn kathir Damascene” in the exegesis of “great Quran”
He’s among Sunni scholars, reliable among Sunni and “Wahhabism” and is an important interpreter. In his exegesis of this Holy verse, he quotes from “Tabari” that god’s caliph is “Adam” [AS] and anyone who judges on the earth based on justice, then he’s stated what “Ghertabi” has said and restates that this verse is the main reason for this matter that it’s necessary for god to appoint caliph and it’s not optional.
«قال ابن جرير: فكان تأويل الآية على هذا إني جاعل في الأرض خليفة مني يخلفني في الحكم بالعدل بين خلقي و إن ذلك الخليفة هو آدم و من قام مقامه في طاعة اللّه و الحكم بالعدل بين خلقه، و أما الإفساد و سفك الدماء بغير حقها فمن غير خلفائه ... و قد استدل القرطبي و غيره بهذه الآية على وجوب نصب الخليفة ليفصل بين الناس فيما اختلفوا فيه و يقطع تنازعهم و ينتصر لمظلومهم من ظالمهم و يقيم الحدود و يزجر عن تعاطي الفواحش إلى غير ذلك من الأمور المهمة التي لا تمكن إقامتها إلا بالإمام، و ما لا يتم الواجب إلا به فهو واجب.»
“Ibn jarir Tabari” says: the explanation of this verse is this that god says: I put caliph on the earth who is my successors in ruling to justice among my creatures and this successor is ”Adam [AS] and anyone who is his successor in obeying god and ruling to justice among my creatures, but corrupting and shedding innocents’ blood, aren’t what my caliphs should do …., “Ghertabi” and others reasoned this verse that appointing caliph among people is compulsory to issue sentence about what people differ about and to resolve their differences and to help oppressed people against oppressors and to pose divine orders and to avoid obscene acts and other potent works that only “Imam” can do them and to prepare arrangements that that obligatory act is not done unless with them.
Interpretation of great Quran, Abu Ismail ibn Umar ibn Kathir, Beirut, 1401, vol. 1, p. 73.
As it’s clear “Ibn kathir” believes that “Tabari” has interpreted this way: God has said: firstly, I put successor on the earth to rule among people based on justice and secondly, these successors are “Adam” [AS] and caliphs after him and thirdly: this caliph won’t corrupt and won’t shed innocents’ blood.
At this point, it’s appropriate to ask our Sunni brothers that: were many of Sunni caliphs like what “Tabari” said?and if they didn’t shed any innocent persons’ blood and didn’t commit any corruption? Didn’t “Tabari’s interpretation show that god’s successors are in high level of spirituality to the extent that they can rule on the earth instead of god without committing a bit of corruption ?
Can “Yazid ibn Mu 'awiya” who was hypocrite as Sunni scholars admit, and martyred “Imam Husain” and slaughtered many of companions and followers of Shiite Imam in “hureh” disaster and announced that their wives aren’t forbidden [they can be abused] for three days and used of catapult to destroy god’s house [Kaaba], be the example of what “Tabari” said and be the caliph that was appointed by god. And if “Yazid” is not god’s caliph, in your belief who was the real caliph at the time of “Yazid” who, based on this verse of holy Quran, was appointed by god? As well as at the time of other “Umayyad caliphs” and “Abbasid tyrant caliphs”, who was the god’s caliph that god has selected him? And based on this holy verse, currently, who is the caliph on the earth who doesn’t commit a little bit corrupt and doesn’t shed innocents’ blood and god’s successor on the earth?
“Zuheili” in “Al munir” exegesis:
He has written an issue which is very similar to what “Ghertabi” has said, he restates that from the perspective of all Sunni scholars, except some of “Mu 'tazilite” who are dead now, the existence of “Imam” is a compulsory state and basis in this regard, is this holy verse. In other words, he believes that because this verse implies continuity so, there must be caliph on the earth at any time and this verse has made Sunni scholars to believe in the necessity of existence of “Imam” on the earth.
«ثم إن هذه الآية أصل في نصب إمام حاكم و خليفة يسمع له و يطاع، لتجتمع به الكلمة، و تنفذ به أحكام الخليفة. و لا خلاف بين العلماء في وجوب ذلك، إلا ما روي عن أبي بكر الأصم من المعتزلة أنه قال: الإمامة غير واجبة في الدين، بل يسوغ ذلك ... و أدلة الجمهور: قول اللّه تعالى: إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً و قوله تعالى: يا داوُدُ إِنَّا جَعَلْناكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْضِ [ص 38/ 26] و قوله عز و جل: «وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ، لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ» [النور 24/ 55] أي يجعل منهم خلفاء.»
In this verse the basis is to appoint an ”Imam” who rules people and what he says must be heard and obeyed till society becomes united and caliph’s orders are conducted and there is no difference between scholars I this regard except one of “Mu 'tazilite” named “Abu bakr al- esm” who says that “Emamat” in the religion is not compulsory but it’s permissible…. The reason of Sunni scholars in this matter is what god has said: I put caliph on the earth constantly” and says “O’ David, we have made you the caliph earth” and says “Allah has promised those of you who believe and do good works that he will indeed make them successor in the Land” it means that god puts caliphs among them. Zuhayli Vahbat ibn Mustafa, interpretation of al munir, dar al fekr, Beirut - Damascus 1418 AH., Vol. 1, p. 129
“Thana allah Muzhari” in interpretation of muzhari
He has pointed out to this issue that “Adam” [AS] became god’s caliph because humanity can’t receive grace from god directly. He writes in this regard:
«المراد بالخليفة آدم عليه السلام فانه خليفة اللّه في ارضه لاقامة أحكامه و تنفيذ قضاياه و هداية عباده و جذبهم الى اللّه و اعطائهم مراتب قربه تعالى و ذلك لا لاحتياج من اللّه تعالى الى الخليفة بل لقصور المستخلف عليهم عن قبول فيضه و تلقى امره بغير وسط- و كذلك كل نبى بعده خليفة اللّه.»
The meaning of caliph is “Adam” [AS] because he’s god’s successor on the earth to conduct god’s decrees and to guide creatures and attracting them towards god and to learn them how to get close to god and it’s not because god needs successor but it’s because those whom god has selected “Imam” for them can’t receive god’s grace and his orders directly, and each prophet is after “Adam” [AS] is god’s successor.
Interpretation of al-mazhari Pakistan, 1412 BC, first edition, researcher Ghulam Nabi Tunisia, vol. 1, p. 49
In his text he’s accepted that the meaning of caliph in holy verse is god’s succession and caliphate and it’s because people can’t receive grace from god directly and without mediator and any Prophet after ”Adam” [AS] is god’s caliph. But he didn’t say if we need caliph after prophets or no, but his reason shows that end of prophecy, we’ll need divine successor though he’s not prophet. The reason is, though divine orders are not sent down and that has been necessary has been reached to us by Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] but grace is beyond divine orders and as “Mazhari” restates we can’t receive this grace directly, there must be caliph in any period to reach god’s grace to god as some other Sunni interpreters said that.
“Ibn atiya” in interpretation of al-muhraz al-vahiz”
He’s one of Sunni sixth-century interpreters. He quotes from “Ibn Abas”, Prophet’s [PBUH] companion that the meaning of caliphate in this verse is god’s succession in ruling among people.
قال ابن مسعود: «إنما معناه خليفة مني في الحكم بين عبادي بالحق و بأوامري يعني بذلك آدم عليه السلام و من قام مقامه بعده من ذريته.»
“Ibn Maud” says: its meaning is that my successor in governing is right and based on my orders among my creatures and god has willed “Adam [AS] and his descendants who become successor after him.
“Ibn Atiya “, al muhraz al vahiz, dar al kotob al elmiya, Beirut, first edition researcher: abd al salam abd al shafi, v 1, p 117.
Of course some of Sunni interpreters have quoted “Ibn Masud’s idea , for instance “Maverdi” restates in his book that it has been “Ibn Masud’s idea.
Sunni famous interpreter, “Ibn jarir Tabary” in “jame al bayan” interpretation.
At first he says the meaning of caliph in his interpretation book:
«و الخليفة الفعيلة، من قولك: خلف فلان فلانا في هذا الأَمر إذا قام مقامه فيه بعده.»
When you say: he appointed him as his successor in this matter, you say it when that guy becomes his successor gets his position after him
Abu Ja 'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Al-Bayan interpretation, Beirut, 1412 AH, First Edition, vol. 1, p. 156
Then “Tabari” has expressed different quotations which have said about the meaning of divine caliph and he writes after quoting the view of some of followers:
و يحتمل أن يكون أراد ابن زيد أن الله أخبر الملائكة أنه جاعل في الأَرض خليفة له، يحكم فيها بين خلقه بحكمه، نظير ما: حدثني به موسى بن هارون، قال: حدثنا عمرو بن حماد، قال: حدثنا أسباط، عن السدي في خبر ذكره عن أبي مالك، و عن أبي صالح، عن ابن عباس و عن مرة عن ابن مسعود، و عن ناس من أصحاب النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم: «أن الله جل ثناؤه قال للملائكة: إِنِّي جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ خَلِيفَةً قالوا: ربنا و ما يكون ذلك الخليفة؟ قال: يكون له ذرية يفسدون في الأَرض و يتحاسدون و يقتل بعضهم بعضا.» فكان تأويل الآية على هذه الرواية التي ذكرناها عن ابن مسعود و ابن عباس: إني جاعل في الأَرض خليفة مني يخلفني في الحكم بين خلقي و ذلك الخليفة هو آدم و من قام مقامه في طاعة الله و الحكم بالعدل بين خلقه و أما الإِفساد و سفك الدماء بغير حقها فمن غير خلفائه، و من غير آدم و من قام مقامه في عباد الله؛ لأَنهما أخبرا أن الله جل ثناؤه قال لملائكته إذ سألوه: ما ذاك الخليفة: إنه خليفة يكون له ذرية يفسدون في الأَرض و يتحاسدون و يقتل بعضهم بعضا. فأضاف الإِفساد و سفك الدماء بغير حقها إلى ذرية خليفته دونه و أخرج منه خليفته.
It might that the meaning of “Ibn Zyad” [of the meaning that he’s said” is this that god said to the angles that I’ll put successor on the earth to judge and govern on people with god’s decree and law as it’s written in a narrative that was quoted by some of companions like:” Ibn Abas” and “Ibn Masud” that Prophet [PBUH] said: god said to the angles that I’ll put successor on the earth. Angles said how does this successor like? God said he’ll have children who will corrupt on the earth and jealous on each other and some of them will kill others.
The interpretation of this verse according to what “Ibn Abbas” has said is as follows [god says]: I’’ put successor on the earth who will be my successor in the governing and judgment among my creatures and that caliph is “Adam” and those who become his successor by following god and putting up justice among people but corrupting and shedding innocents’ blood, will be conducted by those who are not god’s successor, because “Ibn Masud” and “ Ibn Abbas” have narrated that when god said, in response of angles’ question about the trait of successor, [ god said] he is the successor who will have children who corrupt on the earth and jealous on each other and some of them will kill some other one, so god ascribed shedding blood and corrupting on the earth to his successor’s children not his successor.”
According to this interpretation, “Tabari” believes that: god’s caliph is someone who has high level and has been appointed by god and never commits corrupt and never sheds innocents’ blood, he doesn’t jealous on others and judges and rules among people with justice by divine rule and order. Secondly: “Adam” [AS] is the first successor of god and they’ll always be successors on the earth on behalf god and govern on people with justice.
“Niemat Allah al-nakhjavani” in al-favateh al-elahiya”
He’s a famous Sunni interpreter of the tenth century. Though he didn’t say that this verse shows continuity, but he restates that not anyone can be successor and those who are the manifestation of divine names and characteristics, can take the responsibility of this heavy matter:
«جاعِلٌ فِي الْأَرْضِ اى العالم السفلى خَلِيفَةً مرآة مجلوة عن صدأ الإمكان و رين التعلق لاتجلى فيها بجميع أوصافي و أسمائي ليصلح خليفتي هذا مفاسد عموم عبادي و يحسن أخلاقهم نيابة عنى ... .»
I’ll put on the earth a successor who’s gotten cleaned from darkness and worldly attachments till I’m emanated in him with all my names and traits and my successor, instead of me, will reform the corruption of my creatures and will make their behavior pleasant On my behalf.
As it’s clear “Nakhjavani” restates that: firstly, the meaning of this holy verse is caliph and god’s successor on the earth and secondly: this caliph is clear of any worldly attachments and all god’s name and traits have been emanated in him and because of this manifestation he’s competent to be the successor. We have to pay attention that, though, “Nakhjavani” didn’t restate on the continuity of divine caliph on the earth, but his argument will consist all the times, because as long as people are on the earth, there must be someone who is not corrupted and is the example of god’s perfection traits and he himself is a perfect human, and reforms creatures’ corruptions and will make their behavior good and this argument is not particular to the past and contains all times and will have more priority compared to the time of Shiite Imam because of increasing growth of promiscuity and immorality and interesting thing is this that his expression of divine caliph, is the same as Shiite’s view about this that god’s successor must be perfect and the manifestation of all divine traits and names.
Another point is this that as he said, divine caliph is the one who doesn’t have any worldly attachment and is not involved in this world’s darkness and is the example of all divine traits and names. The darkness of this world contains any error, sin, disobedience, polytheism and….and divine caliph shouldn’t commit not of them and it means that divine caliph must be infallible otherwise will make mistake, in this case, will be involved in worldly problems. On the other side as “Nakhjavani” restates, god’s caliph is the example of all divine traits and names and all god’s traits have been emanated in him and one of divine traits is this that god never makes mistake and it must be emanated in god’s caliph and it means infallibility and we should pay attention that infallibility is an inner state and one knows about it except god.
Among Sunni scholars “Fakhr Razi” has restated to this issue:
“Fakhr Razi” in the book “High matters”
ثم إن ذلك الإنسان الواحد هو أكمل الأشخاص الموجودين في ذلك الدور كان المقصود الأصلي من هذا العالم العنصري، هو وجود ذلك الشخص. ولا شك أن المقصود بالذات هو الكامل....[فثبت: أن ذلك الشخص هو الكامل وثبت: أن ذلك الشخص] هو القطب لهذا العالم العنصري، و ما سواه فكتبع له وجماعة من الشيعة الامامية يسمونه بالامام المعصوم. وقد یسمونه بصاحب الزمان ویقولون بأنه غائب. ولقد صدقوا فی الوصفین ایضا لأنه لما کان خالیا عن النقائص التی هی حاصلة فی غیره کان معصوما من تلک النقائص وهو ایضا صاحب الزمان.
[the pole of the cosmos] is the unique person who is the most perfect creature at any time that the main target of creating this world is that person and he is perfect human…..so it was proved that that perfect human is the pole of the cosmos and except him all are like his followers. Some of twelve imam-Shiites say that he’s infallible “Imam”. And some time he’s called ”the owner of the time” who is absent. Shiite are right about these two last traits [infallibility and the owner of the time], because he is clear of defects that others have and he’s the owner of the time as well.
But Shiite interpreters have written about this holy verse too, they say god puts caliph on the earth constantly and are the mediators between god and his creatures in reaching god’s grace to the creatures. For instance the expression of two Shiite interpreters will be said:
Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi in the interpretation of “Nemuneh”
Caliph means “successor” but interpreters have said several possibilities about the one or thing that caliphs will take its place on the earth.
Some said it means they will be the successors of angles who used to live on the earth.
And some said that it means that they are the successors of some other people who used to live on earth. But the fair is –as many of researchers have accepted- it means divine caliphate and god’s succession on the earth, because the question that angles ask and say: [the generation of “Adam” [AS] might the beginning of shedding blood and corruption but we’ll worship you], is suits this meaning , because being god’s successor is not compatible by such works, as well as the matter of “ educating divine names to “Adam” [AS]” that we’ll explain about it, is another clear context for this claim.
As well as angles’ humility and prostration before ”Adam” [AS] is another example for this meaning! Anyway, god wanted to create a creature that is the best in the cosmos and deserves to be god’s caliph and successor on the earth. There is narrative from “Imam Sadegh” [AS] about these verses that angles, after awareness of the position of “Adam” and his descendants, found out that they’re more competent to be divine successor on the earth.
Ayatollah Makarem Shirazi, interpreting example, Dar al kotob Al islamic, Tehran, 1374 first edition vol. 1, pp. 173-172
“Qomi Mashadi” in the interpretation of “treasury of minutes”
He’s Shiite twelve-century interpreter. He says the meaning of caliphate is divine caliphate and restates that god almighty doesn’t need successor and the reason of need to successor is people’s defect and the acceptance of divine grace that’s why we need divine caliph and as it’s clear this need is not limited to a particular time and in each period, humanity needs a mediator to mediate among people and god in reaching grace to people:
«و الاحتياج الى الخليفة، انما هو في جانب المستخلف عليه، لقصورهم عن قبول فيضه، بغير وسط. و لذلك لم يستنبئ ملكا.»
Our need to caliph, indeed those who caliph was selected for them require it, because they can’t receive divine grace without mediator, that’s why no angle was revealed revelation.
Selecting caliph and successor on the earth is god’s responsibility and divine caliph must be selected by god almighty, and if this divine successor doesn’t exist for a moment earth will be destroyed- it’s another trait that Shiite considers for divine caliph- on the other hand he must be infallible and only god knows who absolute infallible is.