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What is the shiite scholars idea about hazrat fatima`s disasters during the history?
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What is the shiite scholars idea about hazrat fatima`s disasters during the history?

 

Translated by: Mohammad hassan heidary

 PREFACE:

What is the shiite scholars idea about hazrat fatima`s disasters during the history?

Searching about historical and narrative documents indicates that hazrat fatima had a suffering-life in short  period  after prophet Muhammad 's martyrdom . based on these documents all these issues were in defense of the imamate of imam Ali [PBUH].due to the importance of this issue the author has searched  about  hazrat fatima 's disasters in different writings  , according to  Shiite 's  narrative heritage.  In this writing, we present the views of Shiite scholars in this regard.

SHIITE SCHOLARS ' APPROACH:

from long time ago Shiite scholars have been concerned about recording hazrat fatima 's disasters  and have written a lot in this regard. Of course the insistence of these scholars have some reasons that must be searched in its place. the endeavors of these scholars can be seen in their  theological , narrative and jurisprudence heritage. The following examples are presented from the perspective of these scholars.

1. Noumani[RA] 

“ Noumani”  known as “ibn Abi Zeinab”  died in about 360 BC. He introduces disasters that have been done to hazrat fatima  by the government at that

time as very painful and says:

فلو لم يكن في الإسلام مصيبة ... إلا ما لحق فاطمة عليها السلام حتى مضت‏ غضبى على أمة أبيها و دعاها ما فعل بها إلى الوصية بأن لا يصلي عليها أحد منهم لكان  عظيما.

If there is no disaster in islam unless what was done to her [by caliphate system]. As far as she left this world while she was mad at her father 's nation. It also made her to testate to prevent any body to pray over her . indeed it 's very painful matter.
Al-noumani, Abi Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ibrahim ibn ja`far known as Abi Zainab noumani [die in360 Hejira] ,Al-geybah, page 55 . researched by: fars hasoon karim, publisher: Anvar Al-mahdi. Printing: October-Qom . publishing : first edition ;1422 

2. Sheikh saduq [RA] 

he died in 381 BC , in an occasion he talks about abortion of Mohsen and writes:

  هو (المحسن) السقط الذي ألقته فاطمة عليها السلام لما ضغطت بين البابین 

Mohsen is the same fetus who was aborted when Fatima was pressed between door and wall

 السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكِ يَا بِنْتَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ... السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكِ أَيَّتُهَا الصِّدِّيقَةُ الشَّهِيدَةُ ... السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكِ أَيَّتُهَا الْمَظْلُومَةُ الْمَغْصُوبَةُ السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكِ أَيَّتُهَا الْمُضْطَهَدَةُ الْمَقْهُورَة

 peace be upon you, O daugther of messenger of Allah , peace be upon you  sedighe shahideh, peace be upon you who was oppressed and your right was usurped, peace be upon you who was oppressed.
Al-sadug, aboo jafar Muhammad Ibn Ali ibn Al-hussein  [died in 381 Hegira] maani Al-akhbar, page 206 , publishedby : Society of Seminary Teachers of Qum ,Qom ,first edition, 1430 AH
3. Sheikh mufid [RA]

He passed away in 413 BC .he reiterates to hazrat fatima 's martyrdom and writes:

فَإِذَا أَرَدْتَ زِيَارَتَهَا فَقِفْ بِالرَّوْضَةِ وَ قُل السَّلَامُ عَلَيْكِ ... يَا سَيِّدَةَ نِسَاءِ الْعَالَمِينَ أَيَّتُهَا الْبَتُولُ الشَّهِيدَة ...

when you want to pilgrim her, stop in rozah and say: peace be upon you the  leader of world 's ladies

 Al-seikh Al-mufid, Muhammad ibn AL-noman ibn Al-moallem Abi abdollah Al-akbary Al-bagdaidi[died in 413 Hegira] book ,Al-marar Al-manasek Al-marar,page 179 . searched by: Ayatollah Sal-SAYED Mohammed Baqir Abtani. Pablised by: DarAl- mufid , Beirut; second edition

4.seyyed mortaza [RA]

He was a famous Shiite scholar in the fifth century . he states some of hazrat fatima 's disasters like: the threat of burning  of her house by some leaders of  caliphate and writes:

هذا الخبر (فقالت (فاطمة) يا ابن الخطاب أتراك محرقا علي بابي قال: نعم ...) قد روته الشيعة من طرق كثيرة ... وأي اختيار لمن يحرق عليه بابه حتى يبايع؟

This tradition [Fatima said : O son of khatab: do you want to burn my house down?] has been quoted through different ways by Shiite. What kind of will is it to burn some one 's  house to swear allegiance?

Al- sharif Al-mortaza , Ali ib Al-hussein Al- moosavi [died in 436 Hejira], Al- shafi  AL-emamah v 3 p 241. Searched by : Al- Sayed Al-hossaini Al- khatib.  Pubised by: esmaelian institutate- Qum . second edition. Year of publication 1410.  
5. sheikh tusi [RA]

He 's another well-known scholar of the fifth century. He states beating hazrat Fatima by second caliphate and abortion of  Mohsen as consensus matters among shiite and says : Shiite hadiths on this subject are well-known. The texts of his talk is as follows : 

و المشهور الذي لا خلاف فيه بين الشيعة: أن عمر ضرب على بطنها حتى اسقطت فسمي السقط محسنا و الرواية بذلك مشهورة عندهم.

There is no difference among Shiite that umar ibn-khattab hit hazrat fatima 's belly and aborted her son who was called Mohsen. Shiite hadiths on this subject are well-known.
Al-tusi , Al-sheikh aboojafar, Muhammad ibn Al-hasan ibn Ali ibn husein [died in 460 Hejira] talkhis Al-shafi v 3 p 156.

6 & 7. Abu Alsalah al-Halabi and Ghazi Ibn Barraj - [RA]:
They 're among the scholars of fifth century who have emphasized on this issue . Issues like invading the house of prophet 's daughter and her martyrdom which are seen in their    writings. The texts of each, respectively, as follows:

  ومما يقدح في عدالة الثلاثة ... إحضار الحطب لتحريق منزله والهجوم عليه بالرجال من غير إذنه واضطرارهم بذلك زوجته وبناته وغيرهم إلى الخروج عن بيوتهم

Among things that Undermine the justice of three caliphates are: collecting firewood to burn imam Ali 's[AS] house and invading his house without his permission and distressing his spouse and daughters and other people in the house by making them to leave their home.

Al-halabi , aboo Al-salah [died in 447 Hejira] tagrib Al-maref, p 233, searched by: fars tabrizian Al-hasoon , publication year:1375 – 1417. 

 )زيارة مولاتنا السيدة فاطمة صلوات الله عليها)السلام على البتول الشهيدة ... السلام عليك أيتها المظلومة(

 [for] the pilgrimage of daughter of prophet muhammad [pbuh], you shall say: peace be upon you O Al-batool shahidah(Martyr)

 Al-ghasi  ib AL-baraj , Abdolaziz ibn Al-baraj Al-trablosi [died in481]. Al-mohazab, v 1 p 277.searced by sayed Al-shohada institute. Published by : Al-nashr Islamic institute  belonging to society of seminary teachers , Qom.

8. ibn Shahr Ashoob [RA] 

In the sixth century he emphasized on hazrat fatima 's martyrdom and remembered her as [oppressed martyr] 

Ibn shahr Ashob , rashid Al-din abi abdellah Mohamad ibn Ali Al-sabzevari [died in 588 Hejira],manageb Al-abitaleb ,v 3 p 132, searched by : a committee of scholars of najaf. Published by: Al-maktab Al-motbat Al-heidaria [1376 Hejira]
9. Sayed ibn Tavoos [RA]

He 's a well-known scholar of seventh century . he believes that there is consensus among Shiite scholars that hazrat Fatima was oppressed by the first and second caliphates. He says:

 وعلماء أهل البيت عليهم السلام لا يحصى عددهم وعدد شيعتهم إلا الله تعالى ، وما رأيت ولا سمعت عنهم أنهم يختلفون في أن أبا بكر وعمر ظلما أمهم فاطمة عليها السلام ظلما عظيم

Ahl al-bayt scholars, their number and the number of  their Shiite are countless. I heard of not of them to differ in this issue that Abu al- Bakr and Umar did great oppression to their mother Fatima[pbuh]

Sayed ibn Al-tavoos Al-helli, abi Al-ghasem Ali ibn moosa[died in 644 HEJIRA] .Al-taraef fel marefat mazaheb Altavaef, p252 . first edition 1399.
10. Khajeh nasir toosi[RA]

He was a unique scholar in seventh century . he mentions to some of hazrat fatima 's disasters and writes: 

وبعث (ابوبکر) إلى بيت أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام لما امتنع من البيعة فأضرم فيه النار وفيه فاطمة والحسن والحسين وجماعة من بني هاشم

When Ali[ PBUH ] refused of allegiance to Abu Bakr. He [Abu Bakr] sent some guards to Ali 's house to burn it while Fatima, Hasan, Husayn and others from Bani hashim were in it.

Al-helli,Al hasan ibn yusof  [died in726 Hijri] . kashf Al-morad fi sharh tajrid Al-etegad, p 511.
11. allameh helli [RA]

He has added the topics of hitting of hazrat Fatima and[ abortion of Mohsen] to explain his master 's previous  talks. He says:

وضربت فاطمة عليها السلام فألقت جنينا اسمه محسن.

Fatima [  pbuh  ] was beaten and aborted the fetus who was called: “Mohsen”.

Al-helli,Al hasan ibn yusof  [died in726 Hejira] . kashf Al-morad fi sharh tajrid Al-etegad, p 511 

12. fazel miqdad [RA]

He was a famous theologian in eighth century. once again he mentions the issues of beating and abortion along with some other issues and writes:

بعث (ابوبکر) إليها عمر حتّى ضربها على بطنها و أسقطت سقطا اسمه محسن و أضرم النار ليحرق عليهم البيت و فيه فاطمة عليها السّلام و جماعة من بني هاشم فأخرجوا عليّا عليه السّلام قهرا

First caliphate sent Umar to Fatima and he beat her belly and caused the fetus called Mohsen to  get aborted.
then he burned the house while Fatima and some of Bani Hashem were there and then they forced Ali [pbuh] to leave the house. 

 Seyvari Al-megdad , Al-lavame Al-elahiya, p 359

13. Bayazi Nabati [RA]

He says it 's well known among Shiite that Umar pressed hazrat Fatima between door and wall that led to abortion of Mohsen.   

واشتهر في الشيعة أنه حصر فاطمة في الباب حتى أسقطت محسنا.

It 's famous among shiite that he pushed the door and led to abortion of Mohsen.

Al-ameli Al- nabati, Al-sheikh zeynodin ibi Muhammad Ali ibn yusof [died in877 Hejira] 

14. mohageg karaki [RA]

He was  Shiite famous scholar of the tenth century. he has stated some of these disasters like the threat of burning the house and abortion of Mohsen.
his text is as follow :

.والطلب إلى البيعة بالإهانة والتهديد بتحريق البيت و جمع الحطب عند الباب وإسقاط فاطمة محسنا

They demanded allegiance by insulting and the threat of burning the house and collecting fire wood at the door, as well as the abortion of her child. 

 Karaka, Ali ibn hasan , nafahat Al-lahoot, p 130.

 15. First majlesi [RA]

He died in eleventh century .he has accepted the abortion of Mohsen due to beating hazrat Fatima by second caliphate as well as her martyrdom  after that event. He writes :

 شهادتها صلوات‏ الله‏ عليها كانت من ضرب عمر الباب على بطنها عند إرادة أمير المؤمنين لبيعة أبي بكر و ضرب قنفذ غلام عمر السوط عليها بإذنه و سقط بالضرب غلام كان اسمه محسن

The martyrdom of hazrat Fatima was because, the second caliphate hit the door to her belly [by his kicking] while they were trying to take Ali[pbuh] to swear allegiance to Abu Al-bakr.
The Qunfoz_ the servant of Umar_  whipped Fatima[pbuh] after he was ordered by Umar that led to the abortion of Mohsen.

 Majlesi, Muhammad taghi , rozah Al-motaghin, v 5 p 342

16. Mullah Saleh Mazandarani [RA]

After first majlesi, mulla saleh mazandarani emphasizes on this issue and says: 

قتلوها بضرب الباب على بطنها وهي حامل فسقط حملها فماتت لذلك

They killed Fatima [pbuh] by hitting the door to her belly while she was pregnant and it led to the  abortion of her child and her death.

Al- mazandarani , Muhammad Saleh[died in 1018 Hejira] sharh osool kafi, v 7 p 231 . searched by: Mirza abo Al-hasan Al-sherani. 

corrected by: Al-sayed Ali ashoor. Publisher: Dar Al-ehya Al-torat  Al-arabi . Beirut .

17.KASHANI FEIZ [RA]

He died in 1090 Hejira. He mentions to setting the fire by second caliphate to burn Ali 's house [pbuh] and writes:

منها (المطاعن) ... إضرامه (عمر) النار في بيت عليّ ليحرقه و فيه فاطمة و جماعة من بني هاشم

Among  [INSULTS]   is setting  fire in front of Ali 's  house by second caliphate to burn the hose while Fatima [pbuh] and  some of Bani Hashem were in it.

Feiz kashani, mohsen , elm Al-yaghin  fi A-ossol A-din. V 2 p829

18. VASAEL  OWNER [RA] 

Siekh Hurr Ameli was a famous scholar in Twelfth century . he mentions to the abortion of mohsen through singing poem:

أولادها خمس حسين والحسن * وزينب من أم كلثوم أسن

ومحسن أسقط في يوم عمر * من فتحه الباب كما قد اشتهر

Fatima has five children : hassan ,hussayn and zeinab who is older than Oum kalthum
And [fifth child] is Mohsen who was aborted by opening  the door [the house of  Fatima] at the age of Umar al-khattab , as it 's well-known. 

 Al-amoli, Al-seyad jafar morteza  [contemprory], masat Al-zahra . v 2 p23 published by: DarAl- seyrah . Beirut . Lebanon

19.Allama Majlisi [RA]

He passed away in 1111 BC, he writes at the bottom of this  narration:

إن فاطمة عليها السلام صديقة شهيدة

hazrat fatima 's martyrdom is successive and writes about its details . the details of his words are as follows:

إن هذا الخبر " إن فاطمة عليها السلام صديقة شهيدة " يدل على أن فاطمة صلوات الله عليها كانت‏ شهيدة و هو من‏ المتواترات‏ و كان سبب ذلك أنهم لما غصبوا الخلافة و بايعهم أكثر الناس بعثوا إلى أمير المؤمنين عليه السلام ليحضر للبيعة، فأبى فبعث عمر بنار ليحرق على أهل البيت بيتهم و أرادوا الدخول عليه قهرا، فمنعتهم فاطمة عند الباب فضرب قنفذ غلام عمر الباب على بطن فاطمة عليها السلام فكسر جنبيها و أسقطت لذلك جنينا كان سماه رسول الله صلى الله عليه و آله محسنا، فمرضت لذلك و توفيت صلوات الله عليها في ذلك المرض

This hadith:

" إن فاطمة عليها السلام صديقة شهيدة "

Shows that hazrat Fatima got martyred . this matter is among successive matters. Its reason is that, when government leaders usurped caliphate, and most of people swore allegiance they went to Ali[AS] to force him to swear allegiance but he refused.
 At this time Umar ibn al-khattab sent some guys to set fire and burn Ali 's house . they wanted to enter by force but hazrat Fatima [AS] who was at the door did not let them to enter. Then Qunfoz  the servant of Umar ibn al- Kattab , hit the door to her belly that caused her flank to break and her fetus who was called mohsen by prophet Muhammad got aborted. And it led to her disease and her death.

 Al-majlesi Muhammad bagher [died in 1111Hejira] Marat Al-oghool fi sharh akhbar Al-  rasool. V 5 p 318 . published by: dar Al-kotob Al-eslami . Tehran, second edition 1404 Hejira

20. Hadaeg owner [RA]

Sheikh yousef bahrani, famous Shiite scholar in twelfth century, has written some of hazrat fatima 's disasters like : being beaten by Umar and abortion of Mohsen, in his jurisprudence he says: 

وضرب الزهراء عليها السلام حتى أسقطها جنينها ولطمها حتى خرت لوجهها وجبينها

He beat hazrat Fatima [pbuh] and it led to abortion of her fetus and slapped her and she hit the ground with face. 

Al-bahrani, Al yusof [died in 1186 Hejira] Al-hadaegh Al-naserah fe ahkam Al-etrat Al-taherah v5 p 180 . published by : Al-nashr Islamic institute belonging to society of seminary teachers , Qom 

 21. sadr martyr [RA]

Many of contemporary scholars have written about hazrat fatima 's disasters. Following is part of his talks in his book called : fadak in history.
... قد هجم على آل محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم في دارهم وأشعل النار فيها أو كاد ... أن عمر هدد بحرق بيته وإن كانت فاطمة فيه ..

Indeed Umar ibn Al-khattab invaded progeny of prophet Muhammad [peace be upon them] in their home and set fire or he almost burn it… indeed Umari Ibn Al- khattab threatened  him to burn the house however Fatima[pbuh] lives there.
Sadr, seyad Muhammad bagher , fadak fe Al-tarikh page 28_92

Total conclusion:

The result of this writing is the proving of the approach of all Shiite scholars from the first centuries up to now , about the disasters of hazrat Fatima[pbuh] like: invasion ,burning abortion of the fetus , pressure between door and wall and martyrdom, in short pride after the death of prophet Muhammad [pbuh] by the leaders of caliphate and their followers.

GOOD LUCK!

 



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