Dr. Husseini Ghazvini
Today’s discussion is about the causes of emersion of different Islamic sects and the embranchments developed after the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) passed away.
With regard to noble Hadith by the holy Prophet who stated:
ستفرق أمتي ثلاث و سبعون فرقة و كلهم في النار إلا فرقة واحدة.
“After me, my people will branch out into 73 sects and except one sect who are pious men; the rest will fall in hell’s fire.”
Taking into consideration that Shiite and Sunnite Hadith sources, and scholars of Sunnite like Tarmezi and Ibn Maje in their Sunan have attested to validity of this Hadith and Nasser aldin al-Bani, famous Wahhabi Hadith expert, in his book Selselato al-Ahadith a-Lsahiha, is clear about the validity of this Hadith.
What can prove the real validity of the Hadith to us, was the branching out of people into several embranchments in Islamic community after the death of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). Right at the outset, after he met Allah, Islamic community was divided into two groups. One were the followers of Amir al-Momenin and claim his certain rights in caliphate and his exclusive right in caliphate tenure and succession of prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) - the number of which is great: Even in some Sunnite sources like Sharhe Nahjul Balagha (Description of Nahjul Balagha) by Ibn Abialhadid Mo’tazeli, it is mentioned ten thousand people who supported Imam Ali (AS). There was another group against the first one, Almost more than seventy thousand people who supported the caliphate of the first caliph, Infidelity and as for what was pre-planned, Arab tribes from around Medina came to Medina to aid Infidelity’s Caliphate and take the allegiance of people for him and paving the way for those
who should sit down at the top of the governing body against certain narrations of the holy prophet. Like Uslam tribe about which the second caliph says:
و ما رأيت أسلم إلا أيقنت بالنصر.
When I saw the Uslam tribe entering Medina, I became sure that our triumph was inevitable.
And in the word of Shaykh Mufid ( My God be pleased with him ) Uslam tribe entered Medina while having sticks in their hands and made a promise to the second caliph in order to get help in taking the allegiance for first caliph. Salman al-Farsi said: they did what they did and the entire prophet’s words during 23 years had been ignored such as Thaqalayn Hadith which prophet stated in numerous places:
إني تارك فيكم الثقلين، كتاب الله و عترتي أهل بيتي، إن تمسكتم بهما لن تضلوا بعدي و أنهما لن يفترقا حتي يردا علي الحوض.
“Verily, I am leaving behind two precious things (thaqalayn) among you: the Book of God and my kindred (`itrah), my household (Ahlul-Bayt), for indeed you should follow both Quran AND Ahlul-Byte you will never go astray after me. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the pool (of Paradise) “
Other narrations such as Manzela narration, Dar narration, Ghadir narration and tens of other narrations and verses were ignored. Or as Ibn Abbas says: 300 verses of Quran have directly revealed on the honor, rank and dignity of Imam Ali (AS).
Right from the beginning the Islamic community was divided into two sects: Followers of ruling party and supporters of Amir al-Momenin; Until in the word of Amir al-Mumineen in sermon of Shaqshaqie, he stated the first caliph had run his course and the second one made his turn and went, the third one came to power and due to extortion, cruelty and oppression he did, from every corner of Islamic country people and companions of Muhammad (PBUH&HF) poured into Medina; Those companions who had taken part in Badr and Uhud Battels and were with the holy prophet in Rezvan Allegiance, and were in company with the holy prophet in Hajjatul-Widaa (The Farewell Pilgrimage), They gathered and pronounced a judgment on the murder of the third caliph and after that they went to Ali’s (AS) house and gave him their oath of allegiance with coercion. No matter how many times Amir al-Mumineen said that during these 25 years our society had been involved in acute perversions and putting an end to them was a very hard work and that they couldn’t bear with his justice.
دعوني و التمسوا غيري، فإني لكم وزيرا خير لكم أميرا.
But people didn’t listen and gave him their oath of allegiance. Ali (AS) stated: “If you give me your oath of Allegiance, I will fulfill what I know which is an ultimatum between me and my God, I will not listen to anyone, do not obey anyone and will not yield to anyone’s unjust requests.”
At the very beginning days of his caliphate the sedition of Jamal battle began and according to Yaaghoubi History book, this battle ended with 30 thousand people killed. The Second battle called Siffin ended after 18 months and 110 thousand people were killed from both sides. Nahrawan battle ended with 4 thousand people killed, as there was no family but those who lost a dear one in any of these three battles.
In the times of Ali (AS) society was split into two factions Alavi and Uthmani. Society kept on and ran his course until in the times of Mu’awiya again was divided into two other factions called Umavi and Hashemi (Alavi). In Muawiyah and Imam Hassan (AS) era al- Khawarij emerged and they issued a new denomination called Takfir, those whose behavior was not in accordance with their intentions. First Kalaam sect (ideological) was formed in Islamic community by al- Khawarij. Whoever committed a sin was deemed as a person whose blood may be shed with impunity and whose wealth may be taken with impunity. In contrast to al- Khawarij, Marjaee sect appeared and said: The basis of going to Heaven or Hell is humans’ intentions, not their actions. In this sorry plight another sects called Ashaereh and Mo’tazele took shape and after that Matridi sect came into existence. al- Khawarij and Marjaee era was finished and today in the contemporary world, Sunnite people whether in or out of the country are tied down to these three Theological Schools. Most of Hanafis especially those inside our country, from jurisprudence attitude are Hanafi and from theological attitude are Matridy. Shafi’is who abide in west part of our country, have Shafi’is jurisprudence attitude and Ashaary theological attitude. In Egypt, Sudan and Syria and part of Saudi Arabia they are followers of Mo’tazele. These were the segregations and embranchments in theological area.
In jurisprudent area, with regard to conflicts which happened between Umayyad and Abbasid, Imam Bagher (AS) and Imam Jaafar (AS), established the great Jaafari School and delivered more than 4 thousand graduates to the society. The extension of Jafari jurisprudence in the then society scared the Abbasid government, and in order to fight Jafari School and Shiite, they brought another denomination to work by money and military force and created Hanafi School in society which is the follower of Abu Hanife, Naaman Ibn Sabet, who died in 150 Hegirae. After him they created jurisprudence of Malik Ibn Anas – who died in 179 Hegirae - as a second Sunnite denomination called Maliki Denomination. Yet, they didn’t find it sufficient and developed a third denomination called Shafei who were followers of Ahmad Ibn Edris Shafei – who died in 204 hegira – and after that they made a fourth denomination called Hanbali who are followers of Ahmad Ibn Hanbal – who died in 241 Hegira. In today’s Islamic world these four denominations have followers. Of course most of Sunnis are followers of Hanafi denomination and after that Shafei denomination is in the second place and Maliki and Hanbali are next.
Every day the Islamic community was facing segregation and embranchment in this very manner, until in seventh Hegira century, a new faction called the Wahhabism was developed in Syria region. The Wahhabis who have turned out to be a bone stuck in Islam’s throat (a bone which is allowed to remain in Islam’s wound), a complex in Islamic society which is difficult to treat. A sect which introduces the divine face of Islam as a cruel, anti-humanity or as our supreme leader puts it: “Islam of Wahhabism is similar to American and Abu Sofyan’s Islam that today has driven others to extremities.” Today in any part of Islam world where there is explosion, homicide, tension and cruelty, Wahhabism, and Al-Qaida which is the military faction of this sect, are behind it. Their crimes took place in Iran and in the east of country such as Tasouki case, in which in the dead of night they opened fire on 22 dear people who were from Sepah and Basij and cultural activists. Having cut off a head of a dear person, they distributed it in CD format among people in order to create terror and fright; and also, every year in every part of Afghanistan and Pakistan where there was mourning ceremonies for Imam Hussein or other religious conventions were being done, they have committed crimes. The height of the Wahhabis’ crime was in Iraq after it was occupied by foreign forces. During recent years, about 700 thousand people in Iraq were massacred by the Wahhabis and al-Qaeda group and not to mention the number of wounded and mutilated people is much more than that. From this 700 thousand people, as the president of Iraq said, 85% of victims of these explosions were Shia and 15% from other Islamic sects. Today, Wahhabism has officially declared war against Holy regime of Islamic Republic of Iran. Abdolmalek Rigi, military leader of the Wahhabis in Iran, in his speeches and statements, has officially presented Islamic regime of Iran as a polytheist government which is based on heresy and considered the war on Shiite as the certain Islamic principle. He orders his followers to massacre our dear ones day in and day out.
About three months ago, in Saudi Arabia, where the Wahhabis are primarily situated, and from all over the world from Indo-Chinese to Moscow, America and Canada, there is financial support for them, a convention was held in Riyadh and Muftis such as Shaykh Abdoulah Ibn Jabreen, Shaykh Abdulrahman Braj, Shaykh Saleh Fouzan who are of the first-rate personages in jurisprudence and political areas of Saudi Arabia, got together and they officially demanded Saudi Arabia government to exert the height of pressure and aggression on Shiite and do not allow them to enter the Mosques for prayers, they asserted that Shiite should not be allowed in our universities, they are impious and polytheist, Shiite do not have a right to enter the house of god. If I am not mistaken, these Fatwas were issued in 15/07/1386 in Riyadh, Capital of Saudi Arabia. If you go to News Agencies’ Web Sites, in majority of them, texts of this convention are available. This convention is on the Wahhabis Web Sites, which are expanding very fast. They asked a question from Shaykh Abdullah Ibn Jibreen: is it possible to pay Zakat to poor shiites? Because in Saudi Arabia about 33% of people are Shia. In Ahsa and Qatif regions, 85% are Shia; More than 150 thousand Shia abide in Medina and around it, but they suffice with the very least of life right and the outmost of severity, pressure and violence is implemented on Shiite in Saudi Arabia. He replied: no, with four reasons I prove that Shiites are Kefir (apostates):
1- They don’t believe in our Holy Quran and have another Holy Quran among themselves. 2- They consider all companions as impious and do not listen to companions’ words and narrations. 3- They consider us, Sunnite, religiously unclean and if they shake hands with us, they will wash their hands. 4- They resort to Ahlol-Bayt of the holy prophet (PBUH) and in their meetings they say Ya Ali (AS) and Ya Husain (AS) and this is an epitome of polytheism and polytheistism.
Presently, numbers I have show that 40 thousand Wahhabi Web Sites, are operating against Shiites. Ayatollah Sobhani in the preface of his latest book called Shia Youth Gives an Answer, has mentioned this number. About 46 satellite channels in Farsi, English, Arabic, Urdu, French, German, and Russian and …. Languages, spill doubts against Shiites. From book and Howza point of view, last year during the hajj period I was in Manna and they distributed a pamphlet which was 8 pages, in Iranian tents, on the eleventh day they brought it to our tent and gave it to us, I have brought it back to Iran; It was an interview with minister of publicity and guidance, he said: during the month of Hajj, we gave about 10 million booklets, CDs and Cassettes in 20 languages to pilgrims of the house of God. 90 percent of these booklets, CDs and cassettes contain subjects against Shia that says Shia is polytheist, polytheist and heretics; unity (Vahdat) with Shia is meaningless, as it is useless with Jews and Christians.
We all witnessed last year in 33-day war of Israel against Lebanon, Hezbollah – that made Arab history proud, made heroic efforts, filled Zionism with horror and yet, its aftershocks are obvious – Saudi Arabian Muftis, like the very mister Bin Jibreen, issued a fatwa that any kind of help to Hezbollah is Haraam (religiously forbidden), he said: they are Satan’s faction, these statements are available on their web sites. After him another Faqih (Jurisprudent) of them who was in line with world hegemonies, Abd al-Rahman Braj, has issued the same fatwa, after three days another mufti issued this very fatwa. They have even cited in their fatwa that any sort of prayer for Hezbollah’s victory is forbidden, this is the Wahhabis thought, Thought of Islam of America and Abu Sofyan, that they are transmitting and spreading. That is what is happening abroad.
And inside our country; I don’t know where to begin. I would like you very much to watch parts of crimes done by the Wahhabis which is ready on tape (devices to show the picture were not ready at the start of speech, but in the end were all set up), and see by what atrocity, what conscientious refusal, what rascality they have come to fight Shia. They behead dear Shiites and show their heads, they even take 7 to 8 years old children to desert and teach them how to cut a head of a Shia; They give a knife to a 7 years old child to behead a Shia, he cuts his throat and when he reaches a bone, and the child can’t do it, the Wahhabi thug takes a knife and continues, they filmed it and to create a terror and fright, distribute it among people. They take dear shiites in Iraq to dessert, pour oil on them, set them on fire and take pleasure in this scene. They took about 70-80 Shia to desert, tied their hands and feet, threw them on the ground and then opened fire on them.
Now inside the country, and even in Tehran, the Wahhabis activities are totally obvious. They are active in universities. The very last night my friends reported that at 11 o’clock, in one of Tehran’s big universities, they distributed booklets about the Wahhabism. In this very Tehran, on Friday, they do Friday prayers ceremony in 12 districs.
It is good to know that in the year of National Unity and Islamic Solidarity that people accept the call of duty by supreme leader, with conducting meetings and writing several articles and books, a few months ago in Dar al-Ulum Macci theological school in Zahedan province, there was a congress called Sahih al-Bokhari congress, on the sidelines of the congress CDs labeled “Saddam the martyred” and ‘Saddam the Hero and Bin Laden the Hero” were sold. Dr. Muhammad Ibrahim – head of Medina Forum - was invited to this congress, he gave a speech, laughed at everyone’s expense and said: Because Shiites resort to Ahlul- Bayt, they are polytheist. The holy prophet declared war on polytheists. If you go to the Web site of Sunnis who abide in eastern part of the country, called Sunni Online, they have uploaded Bin Jerin’s book there, a person who issued a fatwa on necessity of destroying Haram Aemah (Holy Shrine of Imams) and due to this very fatwa they destroyed the holy Shrine (Haram Mota’har) of Imamein Askari’ein. Of course we have no problem with Sunnite and we hold them dear, but we have battle with Sunnite who contribute to the moral collapse of Wahhabis m and world hegemonies. They put up a book on their web site, titled Navaghez al-Islam which is from Bin Yaz the Grand Mufti in Saudi Arabia. In pages 5-7 of this book he writes:
Those who resort to the holy prophet (PBUH) and Imams (AS), their blood may be shed with impunity and their wealth may be taken with impunity, killing them is Vajib (religiously required) and seizure of their assets is considered permissible.
We believe our country is an Islamic one, a country that prides itself on having a constitution based on Twelve-Imam Shiism.
Dr. Seyed Muhammad Huseini Qazvini
1- Ma’jam Kabir Tayrani, V18, P51 - Damascus History, V33, P370 - Mizanaleetedal by Zahbi, V2, P430 – Lesanalmizan , V3, P291 – Sonan Tarmezi ( Tarmezi Traditions ), V4, P135 – Jamealsaghir by Sayouti, V2, P445 – Kanzal Amal, V1, P183 – Jame albayan, V4, P44 – Tafsir Ghartabi, V4, P160