Saturday 10 December 2016
A review on the verse«محمد رسول الله...» and the exoneration of the Caliphs from attacking on the house of Hazrat Zahra
ID: 254 Publish Date: 28 January 2016 - 17:03 Count Views: 255
Article » public
A review on the verse«محمد رسول الله...» and the exoneration of the Caliphs from attacking on the house of Hazrat Zahra

The text of the posed misgiving:

 God, in the holy Quran says: the Companions of the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) are those who are merciful among themselves: 

مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَماءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَراهُمْ رُكَّعاً سُجَّداً يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلاً مِنَ اللَّهِ وَ رِضْواناً سيماهُمْ في‏ وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْراةِ وَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوى‏ عَلى‏ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذينَ آمَنُوا وَ عَمِلُوا الصَّالِحاتِ مِنْهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَ أَجْراً عَظيماً. الفتح / 29.

 

Muhammad, the Apostle of Allah, and those who are with him are hard against the faithless and merciful amongst themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in worship], seeking Allah’s grace and [His] pleasure. Their mark is [visible] on their faces, from the effect of prostration. Such is their description in the Torah and their description in the Evangel. Like a tillage that sends out its shoots and builds them up, and they grow stout and settle on their stalks, impressing the sowers, so that He may enrage the faithless by them. Allah has promised those of them who have faith and do righteous deeds forgiveness and a great reward. (Quran, 48 : 29)

 

All the Companions of the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) and the three caliphs are included in this verse and it is a proof that they were hard against the faithless andmerciful with the believers; now how could we accept that they have trampled over Ali 's  right and attacked his house and smote the daughter of the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him)s so as to her baby, Mohsen, was aborted?!

Aren’t these accusations that you are making against the caliphs, contrast with the strict text of the holy Quran?

Examining and Criticism: 

2.   Not all the Companions werehard against the faithless

 

4.   Were the caliphs hard against the faithless?:

5.   The erdict on the escaping from the Battles:

 

6.    The first and the second caliphs, opposed the Battle against polytheists:

7.    The escaping of Abu Bakr in Uhud Battle:

8.    The confession of Umar IBin  al Khattab to his escaped from the Battle:

9.    The escaping of Umar from Uhud Battle:

10.    The escaping of Uthman from Uhud Battle:

11.    The escaping of Abu Bakr  and Umar from Khyber Battle:

12.    The irritation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) (PBUH) from escaping of Abu Bakr and Umar from the Battle:

13.    The escaping of Umar in Hunain Battle:

14.    Professor Abdulkarim Mesry denies the bravery of  Abu Bakr and Uthman :

15.    Abu Bakr hasn’t done any positive action in the Battles:

16.    Bravery, from the view of Ibn Taymiyah:

 

17.    Was Umar merciful with the believers?

18.    The ethics of the holy Prophet (peace be upon him) (PBUH):

19.    The inherent violence of Umar:

20.    The inherent violence of Umar before he embraced Islam:

21.    The irritability of Umar after Islam:

22.    The irritability of Umar after the demise of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) (PBUH):

23.    The objection of the Companions to Umar 's Caliphate for his irritability:

24.    The Taqiyya (dissimulation) of the Companions from Umar:

25.    The irritability of Umar with his family:

26.    The manner of Umar contradicts with the manner of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) (PBUH);

27.    The group of replying to misgivings, Research Institute of Hazrat Wali 'Asr (May God hasten His deliverance)

 

1.    This verse doesn’t include all the Companions:

Sunnis have used this verse as one of the verses to prove the justice of all the Companions especially the three caliphs, and they claim that God has described all the Prophet (peace be upon him) 's Companions as being hard against the faithless and merciful with the believers and that God has promised them forgiveness and a great reward.

We say In reply: this verse will never prove the justice of all the Companions; because the meaning of the word «معيت» (companionship) in the verse « وَالَّذينَ مَعَهُ» is not the physical companionship; rather it means the spiritual and faithful companionship; it is about those who have had the characteristics mentioned in the verse. In this verse God has named the characteristics of the Companions of the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) (peace be upon him and his family). From the biography of the Companions we can understand that some of these Companions were not characterized by these characteristics; so this verse doesn’t include them all and it just includes those who have got these characteristics.

2.    Not all the Companions were hard against the faithless:

One of the characteristics that God has included in descriBing the companions of the Gods’ Prophet (peace be upon him) (peace be upon him and his family) is that they are hard against the faithless.

From the biography of the companions and their escaping from Battles in the early days of Islam we can conclude that some of the Companions didn’t have this characteristic. The best witness is the escaping fromUhud, Khaybar and Hunain Battles in which the Prophet (peace be upon him) (peace be upon him and his family) remained alone with only some of the Companions.

God in the holy Quran mentions the escaping of the Companions:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْاْ مِنكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الجَْمْعَانِ إِنَّمَا اسْتزََلَّهُمُ الشَّيْطَانُ بِبَعْضِ مَا كَسَبُواْ وَ لَقَدْ عَفَا اللَّهُ عَنهُْمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ حَلِيم‏. آل عمران / 155.

 

Those of you who fled on the day when the two hosts met, only Satan had made them stumble because of some of their deeds. Certainly Allah has excused them, for Allah is all-forgiving, all-forbearing. (Quran, 3 : 155)

And God in verse 25 of Sura al-Tawbah, says:

لَقَدْ نَصَرَكُمُ اللَّهُ في‏ مَواطِنَ كَثيرَةٍ وَ يَوْمَ حُنَيْنٍ إِذْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ كَثْرَتُكُمْ فَلَمْ تُغْنِ عَنْكُمْ شَيْئاً وَ ضاقَتْ عَلَيْكُمُ الْأَرْضُ بِما رَحُبَتْ ثُمَّ وَلَّيْتُمْ مُدْبِرين‏. التوبة / 25.

Allah has certainly helped you in many situations, and on the day of Hunayn, when your great number impressed you, but it did not avail you in any way, and the earth became narrow for you in spite of its expanse, whereupon you turned your backs [to flee].

These two verses prove that the Companions have escaped in Uhud and Hunain Battles. In Hunain Battle more than twelve thousand were accompanying the Prophet (peace be upon him); but during the Battle all _but a few of them _ have escaped leaving the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) alone among the enemy’s army.

Now how can they claim that all the Companions were hard against the faithless?

According to this, the verse doesn’t include all the Companions; otherwise it includes those who had stood against the faithless, those who were truly hard on the faithless.

3.    Not all the Companions were merciful with the believers:

The second characteristic that God has included in descriBing the Companions of the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) (peace be upon him and his family) is that they were merciful among themselves. By viewing the history of the early days of Islam, we see that this characteristic is not mentioned in all the descriptions of the Companions; because there were Battles and bloodsheds among the Companions, which proves the opposite of this matter. The best evidence and proof to confirm this matter is that: the Companions had the main role in both sides in gathering the Companions from around all the Islamic countries to kill Uthman Bin 'Afan, join al-Jamal, Siffin and al-NahrawanBattles.

We have discussed this matter completely and mentioned the names of the Companions who had participated in the murder of Uthman Bin 'Afan the article                      «بررسى آيه السابقون الأولون». So, there is no need to restate it.

4.    Were the caliphs hard against the faithless?:

Since the main purpose of the Sunnis from basing their argument on this verse is the exoneration of the three caliphs and denying their attacking on the house of Hazrat Zahra (AS) and her martyrdom. Here we view the biography of the three caliphs, so we can see whether the three caliphs had this characteristic and whether they are included in this verse or not?

Before entering the main point we write briefly about the verdict of the escaping from the Battles.

5.    The verdict on the escaping from the Battles:

No doubt that escaping from the Battlefield is a mortal sin, it is an unfavorable act from the perspective of reason and religion; because it proves that the deserter from war has not kept the promises he had made to God and he is not willing to scarify himself for God and Islam.

And if this escaping is the cause of remaining the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) alone with no supporters to repel the enemy’s attacks, it will have more sever sentence.

God says about those who escape from battle:

يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفًا فَلا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَار. وَ مَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيزًِّا إِلىَ‏ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَ مَأْوَئهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَ بِئْسَ المَْصِير. الأنفال / 15 و 16.

you who have faith! When you encounter the faithless advancing [for Battle], do not turn your backs [to flee] from them. Whoever turns his back [to flee] from them that day—unless [he is] diverting to fight or retiring towards another troop—shall certainly earn Allah’s wrath, and his refuge shall be hell, an evil destination. (Quran, 8 : 15 & 16)

There are many narrations in the Sunni narrative resources which state that escaping from Battles is forbidden, here we refer to one of these narrations.

Mohammad Bin Ismail al-Bukhari mentions in his book Sahih al-Bukhari:

عن أبي هُرَيْرَةَ رضي الله عنه عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم قال اجْتَنِبُوا السَّبْعَ الْمُوبِقَاتِ قالوا يا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وما هُنَّ قال الشِّرْكُ بِاللَّهِ وَالسِّحْرُ وَقَتْلُ النَّفْسِ التي حَرَّمَ الله إلا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَكْلُ الرِّبَا وَأَكْلُ مَالِ الْيَتِيمِ وَالتَّوَلِّي يوم الزَّحْفِ وَقَذْفُ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ الْغَافِلاتِ.

Abu Huraira said: the Messenger of Allah( peace be upon him), said: "Avoid the seven vices which drives you to Hell."They said: O Messenger of Allah, what are they? He stated: "polytheism, killing the soul which Allah has forbidden killing him unless they have murdered somebody, usury, trampling over the orphan 's right, escaping from the Battlefield, and accuse chaste and believing women."

Shukani, following the narration adds:

( وفي الحديث ) دَلِيلٌ على أَنَّ هذه السَّبْعَ الْمَذْكُورَةَ من كَبَائِرِ الذُّنُوبِ وَالْمَقْصُودُ من إيرَادِ الحديث ها هنا هو قَوْلُهُ فيه وَالتَّوَلِّي يوم الزَّحْفِ فإن ذلك يَدُلُّ على أَنَّ الْفِرَارَ من الْكَبَائِرِ الْمُحَرَّمَةِ وقد ذَهَبَ جَمَاعَةٌ من أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ إلَى أَنَّ الْفِرَارَ من مُوجِبَاتِ الْفِسْقِ.

The seven cases mentioned in this narration are mortal sins and our purpose from quoting this narration here is the sixth case which is the escaping from Battles which is considered as a mortal sin and some of the scholars consider it as a cause for impiety.

IBin  hazm Andulesi says about fleeing from Battles:

مسألة، ولا يحل لمسلم أن يفرّ عن مشرك ولاعن مشركين ولو كثر عددهم أصلاً لكن ينوى في رجوعه التحيز إلى جماعة المسلمين ان رجا البلوغ، إليهم أو ينوى الكر إلى القتال فإن لمن ينو الا تولية دبره هاربا فهو فاسق ما لم يتب، قال الله عز وجل: (يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفًا فَلا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَار. وَ مَن يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيزًِّا إِلىَ‏ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَ مَأْوَئهُ جَهَنَّمُ ).

It is not permissible for a Muslim to flee from a pagan or pagans; even if they are many, but if he intends to withdraw and return to the Muslims, his intention from withdrawal must be to resume the fight on their side against the pagans, otherwise he will be considered as a impious, unless he repents. God Almighty says: Oh! You who have faith! When you encounter the faithless advancing in battles, do not turn your backs [don’t flee] from them. Whoever turns his back from them that day shall certainly earn Allah’s wrath, and his abode shall be the hell which is the evil plight

 

6.    The first and the second caliphs, opposed the Battle against polytheists:

The Battle of Badr, was a key Battle in the early days of Islam; it had fundamental role in the Consolidating the Islamic government in Medina. The Prophet (peace be upon him) of Islam consulted his followers and comrades whether to fight Quraysh or return to Medina. Sunni scholars say that when the Prophet (peace be upon him) broachedthis subject to Umar and Abu Bakr, they disagreed and preferred to return to Mecca.

عَنْ أَنَس، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم شَاوَرَ حِينَ بَلَغَهُ إِقْبَالُ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ قَالَ فَتَكَلَّمَ أَبُو بَكْر فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ ثُمَّ تَكَلَّمَ عُمَرُ فَأَعْرَضَ عَنْهُ فَقَامَ سَعْدُ بْنُ عُبَادَةَ فَقَالَ إِيَّانَا تُرِيدُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَوْ أَمَرْتَنَا أَنْ نُخِيضَهَا الْبَحْرَ لأَخَضْنَاهَا وَلَوْ أَمَرْتَنَا أَنْ نَضْرِبَ أَكْبَادَهَا إِلَى بَرْكِ الْغِمَادِ لَفَعَلْنَا - قَالَ - فَنَدَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم النَّاسَ فَانْطَلَقُوا حَتَّى نَزَلُوا بَدْرًا

Anas says: when the messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) received the news of the arrival of Abi Sufyan, he consulted everyone of his Companions and followers. When Abu Bakr talked, the Prophet (peace be upon him) turned away from him and it also happened to Umar.

Saad Bin 'Ibadah rose and said: O massanger of Allah! Do you want to know our view and opinion? With the name of who is my soul between his hands if you order us to drown them in the sea we will do so, and if you order us to caress their backs by our swards, we will do so. After this speech, the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) gathered the people to fight and they marched and encamped in Bader.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) turned away from Abu Bakr and Umar because their speeches indicated the dignity and glory of Quraysh, which lead to the demoralization of Muslims. It was mentioned in the Sunni resources the contents of the  speeches of the first and the second caliphs:

فقال عمر بن الخطاب: يا رسول الله إنها قريش وعزها، والله ما ذلت منذ عزت ولا آمنت منذ كفرت....

Umar IBin  al-Khattab says: O messenger of God! The Quraish tribe has a great dignity among us, I swear by God it has never been humbled since it had become glorious and it has never believed since it had become infidel.

The fundamental question here is, Does he include in the verse mentioned someone who has such spirit?

7.    The escaping of Abu Bakr from Uhud Battle:

There is no doubt that the phrase << being hard against the faithless >> does not relate to the escaping from Battles and the escapers. You cannot attribute this verse to the people who have escaped from the battles. The three caliphs had escaped from many Battles like Uhud, Khaybar and Hunain.

One of the evidences of Umar’s escaping from Uhud Battle is his confession. Many of Sunni grandees have mentioned this quotation from Ayesha:

كان أبو بكر رضي الله عنه إذا ذكر يوم أحد بكى ثم قال ذاك كله يوم طلحة ثم أنشأ يحدث قال كنت أول من فاء يوم أحد فرأيت رجلا يقاتل مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم دونه وأراه قال يحميه قال فقلت كن طلحة حيث فاتني ما فاتني فقلت يكون رجلا من قومي أحب إلي وبيني وبين المشرق رجل لا أعرفه وأنا أقرب إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم منه وهو يخطف المشي خطفا لا أخطفه فإذا هو أبو عبيدة بن الجراح فانتهينا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وقد كسرت رباعيته وشج في وجهه وقد دخل في وجنته حلقتان من حلق المغفر.

Ayesha says: Whenever Abu Bakr remembered the day of Uhud Battle he started crying and said: That day was Talha’s day. Then said: I was the first who returned (after escaping) and I witnessed the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) fighting one of the infidels. I said to Talha: Stay where you are, I have missed one of my beloved ones, he was one of my relatives who is dearest for me than all are between the east and the west. I was closer to the Prophet (peace be upon him) than him, a person whom I didn’t know came near to the Prophet (peace be upon him), when I got closer I realized that he is Abu Ubayd IBin  al-Jarrah, we arrived at the Prophet (peace be upon him) together and saw the four front teeth of His Highness have been broken, his face has been wounded and there were two armor rings in his cheek.

After quoting this narration, Hakim Neyshabouri says:

"هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه."

8.    The confession of Umar IBin  al Khattab to his escaped from the Battle:

Another evidence egarding Abu Baker and Umar’s escaping from the Battle of Uhud is Umar confession in this regard at the time of his caliphate. Abu Modhaffar al-Kanani Lubab al-Adab and IBin  Abd al-Bar Qurtabi in al-Istizkar.

عن إسماعيل بن عمر رضي الله عنه قال: لما فرض عمر رضوان الله عليه الدواوين جاء طلحة بن عُبيد الله رحمه الله بنفرٍ من بني تميم يستفرض لهم، وجاء رجلٌ من الأنصار بغلامٍ مصفرٍّ سقيمٍ، فقال: من هذا الغلام؟ قال: هذا ابن أخيك البراء بن النضر، فقال عمر رضي الله عنه: مرحباً وأهلاً، وضمَّه إليه، وفرض له في أربعة آلاف، فقال طلحة: يا أمير المؤمنين، انظر في أصحابي هؤلاء، قال: نعم، ففرض لهم في ستمائة ستمائة، فقال طلحة: ما رأيت كاليوم شيئاً أبعد من شيء أي شيء هذا؟ فقال عمر رحمه الله عليه: أنت يا طلحة تظن أنني منزلٌ هؤلاء بمنزلة هذا؟ إني رأيت أبا هذا جاء يوم أُحدٍ وأنا وأبو بكر قد تحدثنا أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قُتل، فقال: يا أبا بكر، ويا عمر، ما لي أراكما جالسين؟ إن كان رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قُتل فإن الله حي لا يموت، ثم ولّى بسيفه، فضُرب عشرين ضربة، أعدها في وجهه وصدره، ثم قُتِل رحمه الله.

Ismail Bin Umar says: When Umar ordered to write the list of the individuals for the Bayt al-Mal( Muslims’ treasury) to get their allowance, Talha Bin Ubaydullah  with someone from Bani Tamim Tribe came to register their names, and also there was a man from Ansar came with a young thin man who was registering his name . Umar asked who this boy is. He replied: I’m you nephew Bara ' Bin Nazr, Umar welcomed him, embraced him and assigned him four thousand.

Talha said: Consider our friends. He assigned six hundred for each. Talha said: I haven’t witnessed such discrimination. Umar said: Do you think I should give you, your friend and my nephew the same amount? At the day of Uhud Battle, Abu Bakr and I were sitting when his father came to us and said: Why are you sitting here, if the Prophet (peace be upon him) has been killed, his God is immortal, then he took his sword and went to fight the enemies so as to he received twenty hits on his face and his chest and finally he got martyred.

9.    The escaping of Umar from Uhud Battle:

The second caliph gave a speech in his caliphate time and in the speech he confessed that he was one of the escapers from the Battle.

Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari says in his commentary book:

خَطَبَ عُمَرُ يَوْمَ الْجُمُعَةِ، فَقَرَأَ آلَ عِمْرَانَ، فَلَمَّا انْتَهَى إِلى قَوْلِهِ: «إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْا مِنْكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ»، قَالَ: لَمَّا كَانَ يَوْمُ أُحُدٍ هَزَمْنَاهُمْ فَفَرَرْتُ حَتَّى صَعِدْتُ الْجَبَلَ، فَلَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنِي أَنْزُو كَأَنَّنِي أَرْوَى، وَالنَّاسُ يَقُولُونَ: قُتِلَ مُحَمَّدٌ، فَقُلْتُ: لاَ أَجِدُ أَحَدَاً يَقُولُ قُتِلَ مُحَمَّدٌ إِلاَّ قَتَلْتُهُ، حَتَّى اجْتَمَعْنَا عَلى الْجَبَلِ، فَنَزَلَتْ: ) إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَلَّوْا مِنْكُمْ يَوْمَ الْتَقَى الْجَمْعَانِ.

One Friday Umar was giving a sermon; he was reciting the Sura 'Al-i Imran and when he reached this verse << Those of you who fled on the day when the two hosts met >> he also added: When we were defeated in Uhud Battle, I escaped to a mountain and I was very thirsty from jumping and rising. Then I heard someone saying: Muhammad has been killed; I said I will kill whoever saying that Muhammad has been killed. We took refuge on the mountain. When we all were gathered on the mountain this verse was sent down.

Fakhr al-Razi who is one of the eminent Sunni scholars mentions:

ومن المنهزمين عمر، الا أنه لم يكن في أوائل المنهزمين ولم يبعد، بل ثبت على الجبل إلى أن صعد النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم.

Umar was one of the escapers from the Battlefield, but he wasn’t from the first escapers, he was standing up the mountain waiting to the Prophet (peace be upon him) (peace be upon him) to be joined them. 

10.    The escaping of Uthman from Uhud Battle:

Ibn  Abd al-Barr who is one of the eminent Sunny scholars mentions:

وفر عثمان بن عفان وعقبة بن عثمان وسعد بن عثمان رجلان من الأنصار ثم من بني زريق حتى بلغوا الجلعب جبلا بناحية المدينة فأقاموا به ثلاثا ثم رجعوا إلى رسول الله عليه السلام....

Uthman Bin 'Afan and two men of Companions named Uqbat Ibn Uthman and Sa 'ad Ibn Uthman and some people from Bani Zareeq Tribe escaped to Jal 'ab mountain on the Outskirts of the city, and stayed for three days and nights then they came back to the Prophet (peace be upon him) ...

Fakhr Razi mentions in his commentary book:

ومنهم [المنهزمين] أيضا عثمان انهزم مع رجلين من الأنصار يقال لهما سعد وعقبة، انهزموا حتى بلغوا موضعا بعيدا ثم رجعوا بعد ثلاثة أيام.

Uthman with two people from the Companions named Sa 'ad and Uqbah escaped to a distant place and returned after three days.

Many of the Sunni grandees mention that Uthman accompanying three people had escaped for three days and they couldn’t back for fear of being captured.

فر عثمان بن عفان وعقبة بن عثمان وسعد بن عثمان رجلان من الأنصار حتى بلغوا الجلعب جبل بناحية المدينة مما يلي الأعوص فأقاموا به ثلاثا ثم رجعوا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال لهم لقد ذهبتم فيها عريضة.

Uthman Bin Afan, Aqabat Ibn Uthman and Sa 'ad Ibn Uthman (two people from Companions) kept running away until they reached Jal 'ab Mountain (a mountain on the city outskirt from A 'awadh side) they stayed there for three days then they came back. The Prophet of God (peace be upon him) said to them: How distant have you gone!>>

11.    The escaping of Abu Bakr  and Umar from Khyber Battle:

Siyuti and many other Sunni grandees have quoted:

عَنْ عَلِيَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: سَارَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلى خَيْبَرَ، فَلَمَّا أَتَاهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ بَعَثَ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ وَمَعَهُ النَّاسُ إِلى مَدِينَتِهِمْ وَإِلى قَصْرِهِمْ فَقَاتَلُوهُمْ، فَلَمْ يَلْبَثُوا أَنْ هَزَمُوا عُمَرَ وَأَصْحَابَهُ، فَجَاءَ يَجْبُنُهُمْ وَيَجْبُنُونَهُ، فَسَاءَ ذالِكَ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَقَالَ: لأبُعَثَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ رَجُلاً يُحِبُّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولُهُ، وَيُحِبُّهُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ، يُقَاتِلُهُمْ حَتَّى يَفْتَحَ اللَّهُ لَهُ، لَيْسَ بِفَرَّارٍ، فَتَطَاوَلَ النَّاسُ لَهَا، وَمَدُّوا أَعْنَاقَهُمْ يَرُونَهُ أَنْفُسَهُمْ رَجَاءَ مَا قَالَ، فَمَكَثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ سَاعَةً فَقَال: أَيْنَ عَلِيٌّ؟ فَقَالُوا: هُوَ أَرْمَدُ، قَالَ: ادْعُوهُ لِي، فَلَمَّا أَتَيْتُهُ فَتَحَ عَيْنِي، ثُمَّ تَفَلَ فِيهَا، ثُمَّ أَعْطَانِي اللوَاءَ فَانْطَلَقْتُ بِهِ سَعْيَاً خَشْيَةَ أَنْ يُحْدِثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ فِيهَا حَدَثَاً أَوْ فِيَّ، حَتَّى أَتَيْتُهُمْ فَقَاتَلْتُهُمْ، فَبَرَزَ مَرْحَبٌ يَرْتَجِزُ، وَبَرَزْتُ لَهُ أَرْتَجِزُ كَمَا يَرْتَجِزُ حَتَّى الْتَقَيْنَا، فَقَتَلَهُ اللَّهُ بِيَدِي، وَانْهَزَمَ أَصْحَابُهُ، فَتَحَصَّنُوا وَأَغْلَقُوا الْبَابَ، فَأَتَيْنَا الْبَابَ، فَلَمْ أَزَلْ أُعَالِجُهُ حَتَّى فَتَحَهُ اللَّهُ ). ( ش، والْبزار، وسندُهُ حَسَنٌ ).

Ali (AS) says: the messenger of Allah(peace be upon him) travelled to Khaybar, and when he arrived there he sent Umar with a group of followers to fight them; after a short time Umar and his followers escaped from the Battle, when they came back Umar accused them of fear and they accused him of fear, the messenger has got upset from seeing this and said: I will send a man who loves God and his Prophet (peace be upon him), and God and his Prophet (peace be upon him) love him. He will fight in Khaybar to his final breath to achieve victory.

All the attendees were eager to see who the blessed person is; the messenger paused for a second then he said: where is Ali? They said he has eye pain. He said: call him? When I came to Prophet (PBUH) he rubbed his saliva on my eyes and gave me the flag; I rushed quickly before he could change his decision. I started fighting the enemy, Marhab arrived at the Battlefield and started bragging, I arrived at the Battlefield and started bragging, too. We started fighting and finally God killed him by my hands. His followers all ran away to the castle and closed the gates; I stood behind the entrance gate and kept pushing it until God opened it. My son, Hassan, was witness and can testify my words.

After quoting this narration Hakim Neyshabouri says:

"هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه."

Heythami in Majma ' al-Zawa 'id mentions:

"رواه البزار وفيه نعيم بن حكيم وثقه ابن حبان وغيره وفيه لين."

While Na 'im Bin Hakeem of the narrators of the book Bukhari and Yahiya Bin Moein have authenticated it.

Madhi mentions in Tahdhib al-Kamal:

وقال عبد الخالق بن منصور، عن يحيى بن معين: ثقة. وكذلك قال العجلي... روى له البخاري في كتاب " رفع اليدين في الصلاة "، وأبو داود النسائي في " خصائص علي "، وفي " مسنده ".

Abdul Khaliq Bin Mansour has quoted from Yahiya Bin Moein that he (Na 'im Bin Hakeem) is a trusted person (thaqah), 'Ajali also has said the same thing. And the same thing has been quoted from him from al-Bukhari in ‘Raf 'a al-Yadayn Fi al-Salah’ , and Abu Davoud and Nisaei in ”Khasa 'is Ali’ and its documentations has also quoted it.

Dhihbi says about him:

نعيم بن حكيم المدائني، عن أبي مريم الثقفي، وعنه القطان، وشبابة، ثقة، مات 148.

"Na 'im Bin Hakeem al-Mada 'eni quoted this narration from Abi Maryam al-Thaqafi, and Qatan and Shababah have quoted the same narration from him (Na 'im Bin Hakeem) that he is a trusted person and he has died in 148 AH."

So the transmitted chain of this narration is authentic.

Dhihbi mentions in History of Islam:

عن عبد الرحمن بن أبي ليلى قال: كان علي يلبس في الحر والشتاء القباء المحشو الثخين وما يبالي الحر، فأتاني أصحابي فقالوا: إنا قد رأينا من أمير المؤمنين شيئاً فهل رأيته فقلت: وما هو قالوا: رأيناه يخرج علينا في الحر الشديد في القباء المحشو وما يبالي الحر، ويخرج علينا في البرد الشديد في الثوبين الخفيفين وما يبالي البرد، فهل سمعت في ذلك شيئاً فقلت: لا.

فقالوا: سل لنا أباك فإنه يسمر معه. فسألته فقال: ما سمعت في ذلك شيئاً. فدخل عليه فسمر معه فسأله فقال علي: أوما شهدت معنا خيبر قال: بلى. قال: فما رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حين دعا أبا بكر فعقد له وبعثه إلى القوم، فانطلق فلقي القوم، ثم جاء بالناس وقد هزموا فقال: بلى. قال: ثم بعث إلى عمر فعقد له وبعثه إلى القوم، فانطلق فلقي القوم فقاتلهم ثم رجع وقد هزم، فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عند ذلك: لأعطين الراية رجلاً يحبه الله ورسوله ويحب الله ورسوله يفتح الله عليه غير فرار فدعاني فأعطاني الراية، ثم قال: اللهم اكفه الحر والبرد، فما وجدت بعد ذلك حراً ولا برداً.

Abdul Rahman Bin Abi Layli says: Ali (AS) always wears warm clothes both in the winter and Summer. My friends said: we notice Amir al-Mu 'mineen (AS) who does a strange thing; he wears thick clothes in the summer and light clothes in the winter, Have you heard anything about this?

I said: No, I haven’t. They said: ask your father who is always accompanies Imam Ali(AS). I asked my father and he replied: I don’t know; but he went to Imam Ali (AS) and asked him. Ali (AS) said: Didn’t you accompany us on Khaybar? I said: yes. He said: haven’t you seen the Prophet (peace be upon him) sending Umar to conquer Khaybar but he failed and came back. I said: yes, I have witnessed it. Then the messenger of Allah said: tomorrow, I will send someone who loves God and his Prophet (peace be upon him) and God and his Prophet (peace be upon him) love him, he will conquer Khaybar. Then he called me and handed me the flag and prayed for me so:May God save him from heat and cold! and since that time, I have never been hurt by them or felt them.

After quoting this narration, Suyouti and Muttaqi al-Hindi mentioned:

( ش، حم، ه، والبزار وابن جرير وصَحَّحَهُ، طس، ك، ق فِي الدَّلائل، ض ).

Hakim al-Neyshabouri in al-Mustadrak quoting from Amir al-Mu 'mineen (AS) mentions:

عن أبي ليلى عن علي أنه قال يا أبا ليلى أما كنت معنا بخيبر قال بلى والله كنت معكم قال فإن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بعث أبا بكر إلى خيبر فسار بالناس وانهزم حتى رجع.

هذا حديث صحيح الإسناد ولم يخرجاه

Ali (AS) said to Abu Layla: Haven’t you been with us in Khaybar? He said: Yes. I swear by God that I accompanied you. Ali (AS) said: The messenger of Allah (peace be upon him and his family) sent a group of people under Abu Bakr 's leadership to Khaybar but they lost the war and escaped.

It is an authentic narration. But Bukhari and Muslim has not related it.

12.    The irritation of the Prophet (peace be upon him) from escaping of Abu Bakr and Umar from the Battle:

Eji in al-Mawaqif mentions:

روي أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم بعث أبا بكر أولا فرجع منهزما وبعث عمر فرجع كذلك فغضب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لذلك فلما أصبح خرج إلى الناس ومعه راية فقال ( لأعطين.. ) إلى آخره.

It was narrated that the Prophet (peace be upon him) of God sent Abu Baker to Khaybar first, hwich he came back, after that he sent Umar who also came back; the Prophet (peace be upon him)  became angry. The next morning that he was holding the flag said:…>>

13.    The escaping of Umar in Hunain Battle:

Muhammad Bin Ismail Bukhari mention in his book Sahih:

عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ رضى الله عنه قَالَ خَرَجْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم عَامَ حُنَيْن، فَلَمَّا الْتَقَيْنَا كَانَتْ لِلْمُسْلِمِينَ جَوْلَة ٌ، فَرَأَيْتُ رَجُلاً مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ عَلاَ رَجُلاً مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ، فَاسْتَدَرْتُ حَتَّى أَتَيْتُهُ مِنْ وَرَائِهِ حَتَّى ضَرَبْتُهُ بِالسَّيْفِ عَلَى حَبْلِ عَاتِقِهِ، فَأَقْبَلَ عَلَىَّ فَضَمَّنِي ضَمَّةً وَجَدْتُ مِنْهَا رِيحَ الْمَوْتِ، ثُمَّ أَدْرَكَهُ الْمَوْتُ فَأَرْسَلَنِي، فَلَحِقْتُ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ فَقُلْتُ مَا بَالُ النَّاسِ قَالَ أَمْرُ اللَّهِ، ثُمَّ إِنَّ النَّاسَ رَجَعُوا....

Abu Qatada says: at the year of Hunain Battle I was with the Prophet  of God (peace be upon him), during the Battle, the Muslims were escaping and returning.

I saw a man from the polytheists, he was fighting one of the believers, I came from back and hit him with my sword on his shoulder, the polytheist turned to me and stuck to me tightly that I felt the death, but finally he released me and fell down and died. When I met Umar, I said to him: Why the people are escaping today? He replied: it is the command of the Lord.

Salehi Shami mentions in Subul al-Huda:

وكان المسلمون بلغ أقصى هزيمتهم مكة، ثم كروا بعد وتراجعوا، فاسهم لهم رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، جميعا، وكانت أم الحارث الانصارية آخذة بخطام جمل الحارث زوجها، وكان يسمى المجسار فقالت: يا حار أتترك رسول الله، صلى الله عليه وسلم، والناس يولون منهزمين؟ وهي لا تفارقه، قالت: فمر علي عمر بن الخطاب فقلت: يا عمر ما هذا؟ قال: أمر الله تعالى.

In Hunain Battle the people escaped so far as that some of them reached Mecca, but they came back, The Prophet of God (peace be upon him) appointed each one of them a share. When Ummu Harith Ansaria had held the rein of her husband’s camel, whose name was al-Majasar , said ti him O Harith! Are you leaving themessanger of God alone? The people were all escaping; but this woman did not leave her husband. She herself says: While Umar Bin al-Khattab was escaping next to me, I said to him what are you doing? He replied: it is the command of the Lord.

Ibn Hajar Asqalani in Fat 'h al-Bari, and Eyni in Umdah al-Qari, and Shukani in Neyl al-Awtar and 'Adhim Abadi Awn al-Mabud about the justification of Umar 's words which he had ascribed his escaping to God says:

قوله ( أمر الله ) أي حكم الله وما قضى به.

The intention of Umar by saying this «امر الله»  is: The God 's writing of Decree and Destiny for us is that we escape!.

If we can accept this justification, we should say no sin will be committed in this world; because all the sinners can justify their sins in the same way.

Of course there is a possibility that Umar’s intention is that the God 's command is  to escape from Battlefield just right now, similarly Eyni has quoted the following from Umdah al- Qari in another book:

( قال: أمر الله )، أي: قال عمر: جاء أمر الله تعالى.

Which in this case it will involve a worse implication for Umar; because, the caliph has not only escaped from the Battlefield but also he has ascribed it to God and has considered it as predestination by God!!!; It is because that:

Firstly: This speech is against the divine command which explicitly prohibited in the Quran.

يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ زَحْفًا فَلا تُوَلُّوهُمُ الْأَدْبَار.

(you who have faith! When you encounter the faithless advancing [for Battle], do not turn your backs [to flee] from them. Whoever turns his back [to flee] from them that day—unless [he is] diverting to fight or retiring) towards another troop—shall certainly earn Allah’s wrath, and his refuge shall be hell).

And in another verse God says that any kind of escaping from Battlefield is confronted with God’s wrath, and the escapers’ abode will be the ell:

يُوَلِّهِمْ يَوْمَئذٍ دُبُرَهُ إِلا مُتَحَرِّفًا لِّقِتَالٍ أَوْ مُتَحَيزًِّا إِلىَ‏ فِئَةٍ فَقَدْ بَاءَ بِغَضَبٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَ مَأْوَئهُ جَهَنَّمُ وَ بِئْسَ المَْصِير. الأنفال / 15 و 16.

You who have faith! When you encounter the faithless advancing [for Battle], do not turn your backs [to flee] from them. Whoever turns his back [to flee] from them that day—unless [he is] diverting to fight or retiring towards another troop—shall certainly earn Allah’s wrath, and his refuge shall be hell, an evil destination.

Secondly: Such thinking is a reminder of the polytheists’ speech when they ascribed their lack of faith to God’s will:

سَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا لَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ مَا أَشْرَكْنَا وَلاَ آبَاؤُنَا وَلاَ حَرَّمْنَا مِنْ شَيْء كَذَلِكَ كَذَّبَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ حَتَّى ذَاقُوا بَأْسَنَا قُلْ هَلْ عِنْدَكُمْ مِنْ عِلْم فَتُخْرِجُوهُ لَنَا إِنْ تَتَّبِعُونَ إِلاَّ الظَّنَّ وَإِنْ أَنْتُمْ إِلاَّ تَخْرُصُون. َ الانعام: 6/148.

 

 

The polytheists will say, ‘Had Allah wished we would not have ascribed any partner [to Him], nor our fathers, nor would we have forbidden anything.’ Those who were before them had denied likewise until they tasted Our punishment. Say, ‘Do you have any [revealed] knowledge that you can produce before us? You follow nothing but conjectures, and you do nothing but surmise.

 

14.    Professor Abdulkarim Mesry denies the bravery of  Abu Bakr and Uthman :

The professor Abdul Karim Mesry, from the exegesis college in Riyadh in 1973AD and 1972AD, he writes about Abu Bakr bravery:

فأبو بكر لم يعرف عنه أنه كان ذا مكانة معروفة في مواقع القتال.

Abu Bakr has not had specified position in the Battles.

And also he writes in his book:

فحسان ابن ثابت ( رضي الله عنه ) لم يكن من المحاربين المعدودين في ميادين الحرب والنضال، ومثله غير واحد من صحابة الرسول كأبي بكر، وعثمان....

Hassan Bin Thabit was not a warrior in the Battles, and the same is true about many other Companions such as Abu Bakr and Uthman…

15.    Abu Bakr hasn’t done any positive action in the Battles:

Finally, it is good to refer to the affirmation of Ibn Abi al-Hadid 's quotes from his master Abu Ja 'far Eskafi:

وهو أضعف المسلمين جناناً، وأقلهم عند العرب ترةً، لم يرم قط بسهم، ولا سل سيفاً، ولا أراق دماً.

Abu Baker was the most feeble minded and the most fearful person comparing with the Arab, he has never thrown an arrow, drawn a sword or his blood spilled.

16.    Bravery, from the view of Ibn Taymiyah:

When Ibn Taymiyah sees that the three caliphs had never achieved any victory in any Battle and they had never killed any infidel at the Prophet 's (peace be upon him) time, he says the following to justify them:

والقتال يكون بالدعاء كما يكون باليد قال النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم هل ترزقون وتنصرون إلا بضعفائكم بدعائهم وصلاتهم وإخلاصهم.

Fighting is sometimes by praying and sometimes by hands; the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) says: Don’t you get provision and are not assisted without the prayer, invocation and sincerity of your weak people?

And in another place by distorting the meaning of bravery he says:

إذا كانت الشجاعة المطلوبة من الأئمة شجاعة القلب، فلا ريب أن أبا بكر كان أشجع من عمر، وعمر أشجع من عثمان وعلي وطلحة والزبير، وكان يوم بدر مع النبي في العريش.

If the leaders must be brave, they need heart bravery, so, there is no doubt that Abu Bakr was braver than Umar and Umar was braver than Uthman, Ali, Talha and Zubayr and he was sitting with the God’s Prophet (peace be upon him) in the tent on the day of Uhud Battle!!!.

So bravery has two forms:

1.     The bravery that everybody sees it;

 

 
 
 

2.     Bravery from the point of view of Ibn Taymiyah which means to stay away and watch the fight!


 

Footnotes

1.     Al-Bukhari al-Ja 'fi, by Muhammad Bin Ismail Abu Abdullah (died in 256 AH). Sahih Bukhari , vol 3, p 1017, Hadith No 2615. Kitab al-Wasaya , chapter  of 23 (باب قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى  إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ...) and vol 60, p 2515, Hadith No 6465. Kitab al-Hudud, the chapter of 44, (باب رَمْىِ الُْمحْصَنَاتِ) . research by d. Mustafa Dib al-Bugha ', published by Dar Ibn Kathir, al-Yamamah Beirut, third edition , 1407 AH-1987 AD.

2.      Al-Neyshabouri , Muslim Bin al-Hajjaj Abu al-Hassan al-Qeshiri (died in 2611 AH). Sahih Muslim, vol 1, p 92, Hadith No 89. Kitab al-Iman, the chapter of بَيَانِ الْكَبَائِرِ وَأَكْبَرِهَا, research by Muhammad Fo 'ad Abdul Baqi. Published by Dar Ehya ' al-Tarath al-Arabi – Beirut.

3.     Al-Shukani, Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Muhammad (died in 1255 AH), Neil al-Atwar Min al-Akhyar, vol 8 , p 78 and 80, published by Dar al-Jeil , Beirut 1973.

4.      Ibn Hazm al-Zaheri, Ali Ibn Ahmad Ibn Saeid Abu Muhammad (died in 456 AH), al-Mahalli, vol 7 , p 292, the point 923 (923 لا يحل لمسلم ان يفر عن مشرك ولا عن مشركين ولو كثر عددهم أصلا...) research by Lajaneh Ehya ' al-Tarath al-Arabi, published by dar al-Afaq al-Jadidah, Beuirut.

5.     Al-Neyshabouri . Muslim Ibn Hajjaj Abu al-Hussain al-Qeshiri (died in 261), Sahih Muslim, vol 5, p 170, Hadith No 4513. Kitab al-Jihad Val Sair (al-Maqazi), the chapter of Badr Battle, research by Muhammad Fo 'ad  Abdul Baqi, published by, Dar Ehya ' al-Tarath al-Arabi, Beirut.

6.     Al-Beihaqi , Abi Bakr Ahmad Ibn Ali (died in 458 AH), Dala 'il Al-Nobowwah , vol 3 , p 107.

7.     Al-Dhebi, Shams al-Din Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Uthman, (died in 748 AH), Tarikh al-Islam and Wafiyyat al-Mashahir Val A 'alam, vol 2, p 106, research by D. Umar Abd al-Salam Tadmuri, published by Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi, Lebanon / Beirut, first edition , 1407 AH , 1987 AD.

8.     Al-Soyuti , Abd al-Rahman Ibn al-Kamal Jalal al-Din (died in 911 AH). Al-Durr al-Manthur, vol 4, p 20, published by Dar al-Fikr Beirut 1993 AD.

9.     Al-Salihi al-Shami, by Muhammad Ibn Yusuf (died in 942 AH) Sabal al-Huda Val Rishad Fi Sayrih Khayrul 'Ibad, vol 4, p 26, research by "adil Ahmad Abdul Mawjud and Ali Muhammd Mu 'awwadh, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Elmiyyah Beirut the first edition 1414 AH.

10.                        Al-Halabi, Ali Ibn Burhan al-Din (died in 1044 AH), al-Sirah al-halbiyah Fi Sirah al-Amin al-Ma 'mum, vol 6, p 386, published by Dar al-Ma 'rifah Beirut, 1400 Ah.

11.                        Al-Tiyasi al-Basari, by Suleiman Ibn Davoud al-Farsi (died in 204 AH) . Musand Abi Davoud al-Tiyasi , vol 1 p 3 published by Dar al-Ma 'rifah Beirut.

12.                         Al-Shaybani by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Abu Abdullah (died in 241 Ah). Faza 'il al-Sahabah, vol 1, p 222 , research by D. Wasiyullah Muhammad Abbas, published by the institute of al-Risalah Beirut, first edition 1403 AH, 1983 AD.

13.                         Al-Isbahani, Abu Na 'im Ahmad Ibn Abdullah (died in 430 AH) . Helya al-Awliya ' Va Tabaghat al-Asfiya ', vol 1, p 78, published by Dar al-Kitab al- 'Arabi Beirut, fourth edition 1405 AH.

14.                         Al-Mazi Yusuf Ibn al-Zaki Abdu al-Rahman Abu al-Hajjaj (died in 742 AH). Tahdhib al-Kamal, vol 13, p 417, research by D. Bashar "awad Ma 'ruf, published by the institute of al-Risalah

15.                        Al-Dhehbi by Shams al-Din Muhammad Ibn Ibn Uthman (died in 748 AH). The History of Islam and Wafiyyat Val A 'alam vol 4, p 191, research by Umar Abd al-Salam Tadmori published by: Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi Lebanon / Beirut, first edition 1407 AH / 1987 AD.

16.                        Al-Safdi by Salah al-Din Khalil Ibn 'Ibak (died in 764 AH) al-Wafi Bil Wafiyyat, vol 6 , p 273, research by Ahmad al-Arnawot Va Turki Mustafa, published by: Dar al- 'Ihya '/ Beirut 1420 AH, 2000 AD.

17.                        Al-Qarshi al-Damishqi by Ismail Ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah al-Hakim 9Died in 405 AH), al-Nustadrak al-Sahihain , vol 3, p 298, research by Mustafa Abd al-Qadir Ata, published by : Dar al-Kutub al-"Ilmiyyah / Beirut, first edition 1411 AH / 1990 AD.

18.                        Al-Neyshabouri by Muhammad Ibn Abdullah al-Hakim (died in 405 AH) al-Mustadrak Ala al-Sahihain , vol 3 , p 298, research by Mustafa Abd al_Qdir Ata, Published by : Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut, first edition 1411 AH / 1990 AD.

19.                        Al-Kanani by Usamah Ibn Menquz Abu al-Muzaffar (died in 584 AH). Labab al-Adab, vol 1 , p 54.

20.                        Al-Namri al-Qratabi by Yusuf Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abd al-Birr (died in 463 AH) Al-Istidhkar al-Jami ' Limadhahib Fuqaha al-Amsar, vol 3 p 248, research by : Salim Muhammad Ata and Muhammad Ali Mu 'awwaz, published by : Dar al-Kutub al-"Ilmiyyah Beirut, first edition 2000 AD.

21.                        Al-Tabari by Muhammd Ibn Jarir, Jami ' al-Bayan An Ta 'wil Ayy al-Quran, vol 4, p 144, published by Dar al-Fikr, Beirut, 1405 AH.

22.                         Al-andolesi, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq Ibn Ghalib Ibn Atiyyah, al-Muharr al-Wajiz Fi Tafsir al0-Kitab Al-Aziz, vol 1, p 529. Research by Abdu al-Salam Abd al-Shafi Muhammad, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Lebanon first edition 1413 AH, 1993 AD.

23.                        Al-Soyuti by al_hafiz Jalal al-Din, Jami ' al-Ahadith (al-Jami ' al-saghir Va Zawa 'idahu Va alJami ' Al-Kabir) , vol 14, p 529 …

24.                        Al-Razi al-Shafi 'I by Fakhr al-Din Muhammad Ibn Umar al-Tamimi (died in 604 AH). Al-Tafsir al-Kabir Aw Mafatih al-Ghqy, vol 9, p 42. Published by Dar al_kutub al-"Ilmiyyah – Beirut, firdt edition 1421 AH,/ 2000 AD.

25.                        Ibn Abd al-Birr by Yusuf Ibn Abdullah Ibn Muhammd (died in 463 AH). Al- 'Isti 'ab Fi Ma 'rfatih al-As 'hab ,vol 3 p 1074, research by Ali Muhammad al-Bajawi, published by Dar Al-Jayl – Beirut, first edition 1412 AH.

26.                        Al-Safdi by Salah al-Din Khalil Ibn Ibak (died in 764 AH) . al-Wafi Bil Wafiyyat , vol 20, p 61, research by Ahmad al-Arnawt Va Tuki Mustafa published by Dar "ihya ' al-Tarath- Beirut 1420 AH / 2000 AD.

27.                        Al-Qurashi al-Damishqi, Ismail Ibn Umar Ibn Kathir Abu al-Fada ' (died in 774 AH) . al-Bidayah val Nihayah vol 4, p 2928. Published by Maktabah al-Ma 'arif – Beirut.

28.                        Al-Razi al-Shafi 'I, Fakhr al-Din Muhammad Ibn Umar al-Tamimi (died in 604 AH). Al-Tafsir al-Kabir Aw Mafatih al-Ghayb, vol 9, p 42, published by Dar al-Kutub al-"ilmiyyah. Beirut first edition 1421 AH / 2000 AD.

29.                        Al-Tabari , by Muhammad Ibn Jarir (died in 310 AH) . Jami ' al-Bayan An Ta 'wil Ayy al-Quran, vol 4, p 145, published by Dar al-fikr, Beirut – 1405 AH

30.                        Al-Tabari, by Muhammad Ibn Jarir (died in 310 AH). Tarikh al-Tabari, vol 2, p 69, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut.

31.                        Al-Jazari, by Ezz al-Din Ibn al-Athir Abi al-Hassan Ali Ibn Muhammad (died in 630 AH). Asad al-GHabah Fi Ma 'rifatih al-Sahabah, vol 4, p 63, research by Adil Ahmad al-Rifa 'I , published by Dar Ihya ' al-Tarath al-Arabi – Beirut / Lebanon first edition 1417 AH / 1996 AD.

32.                        Al-Qurashi al-Damishqi by Ismail Ibn Umar Ibn Kathir Abu al-Fada ' (died in 774 AH). Al-Sirah al-Nabawiyyah ,  vol 3, p 55

33.                        Al-Asqalani al-Shafi 'I, Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar Abu al-Fazl (died in 852 AH) al-Matalib al-Aliyyah Bizawa 'id al-Masanid al-Thamaniyyah, vol 17, p 347, research by Sa 'd Ibn Nasir Ibn Abd al-Aziz al-Shatari, published by Dar al-Asimah / Dar al-Ghayth, first edition / al-Sa 'udiyyah 1419 AH.

34.                        Ibn Abi al-Shaybah al-Kufi by Abu Bakr Abdullah Ibn Muhammad (died in 235 AH). Al-Kitab al-Munsif Fi al-Ahadith Val Athar, vol 7, p 396, Hadith No 36894., research By Kamal Yusuf al-Hut, published by Mattabah al-Rushd – al-Riyadh first edition 1409 AH

35.                        Al-Bazar, Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Amrow Ibn Abd al-Khaliq (died in 292 AH). Al-Bahr al-Zukhar, vol 11, p 327 AH, Hadith No 5140, research by Mahfooz al-Rahman Zainullah, Published by The Institute of Quranic science, Maktabah al- 'Ulum Val Hikam – Beirut, al-Medina first edition 1409 AH.

36.                        Jami ' Al-Ahadith (al-Jami ' al-Saqirah va Zawa 'idah val Jami ' al-Kabir). Al-Hafiz Jalal al-Din al-Sotuti, vol 16, p 135, Hadith 7406. And al-Musnif Fi al-Ahadith val Athar, Ibn Abi Shaybah al-Kufi, Val Bahr al-Zukhar (Musnad Bazar) Ahmad Ibn Amrow al-Bazar (died in 292 AH)

37.                        Al-Neyshabouri by Muhammd Ibn Abdullah Abu Abdullah al-Hakim (died in 405 AH). Al-Mustadrak Ala al-Sahihayn, vol 3, p 40, Hadith 4340, research by Mustafa Abdul Qadir Ata, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut, first edition 1411 AH, 1990 AH.

38.                        Al-Heithami by Ali Ibn Abi Bakr (died in 807 AH). Majma ' al-Zawa 'id Va Manba ' al-Fawa 'id, vol 6, p 151, published by Dar al-Riyan Lil-Tarath / Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi – al-Cairo, Beirut, 1407 AH.

39.                         Al-Mazi  by Yusuf Ibn al-Zaki Abdurrahman Abu al-Hajjaj (died in 742 AH). Tahdhib al-Kamal, vol 29, p 465, research by D. Bashar Awad Ma 'rouf, published by Institute of al-Risalah – Beirut, first edition, 1400 AH / 1980 AD.

40.                        Al-Dhehbi by Shams al-Din Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Uthman (died in 748 AH), al-Kashif Fi Ma 'rifah Min Riwayah Fi al-Kutub al-Sittah, vol 2, p 323, Hadith 5855, research by Muhammad Awamah published by Dar al-Qiblah Lil-Thaqafah al-Islamiyyah, institute of Ulow, Jeddah, first edition, 1413 AH, 1992 AD.

41.                        Al-Dhehbi by Shams al-Din Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Uthman (died in 748 AH). Tarikh al-Islam and Wafiyyat al-Mashahir Wal-A 'alam, vol 2, p 412, research by D. Umar Abdussalam Tadmori, published by : Dar al-Kitab al-Arabi – Lebanon / Beirut, first edition, 1407 AH / 1987 AD.

42.                        Ibn Abi Shaybah al-Kufi, by Abu Bakr Abdullah Ibn Muhammad (died in 235 AH). Al-Kitab al-Musnif Fi al-Ahadith Val Athar, vol 6, p 367, Hadith 32080, research by Kamal Yusuf al-Hut, published by : Maktabah al-Rushd – Riyadh, first edition 1409 AH.

43.                        Al-Soyuti by al-Hafiz Jalal al-Din , Jami ' al-Ahadith (al-Jami ' al-saghir Va Zawa 'idahu Va alJami ' Al-Kabir) , vol 16, p 243.

44.                        Al-Hendi by Ala 'iddin Ala al-Muttaqin Ibn Hesam al-Din (died in 975 AH), Kanz al-Ummal Fi Sunan al-Aqwal wal 'afal, vol 13, p 53, research by Mahmuod Umar al-Diyami, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut, first edition, 1419 AH, 1998 AD.

45.                        Al-Neyshabouri, Muhammad Ibn Abdullah Abu Andullah al-Hakim (died in 405 AH), al-Mustadrak Ala al-Sahihayn, vol 3, p 39, research by Mustafa Abdulqadir Ata, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut , first edition, 1411 AH / 1990 AD.

46.                        Al- 'Iji, Azid al-Din (died in 756 AH), Kitab al-Mawaqif, vol 3, p 634, research by Abdurrahamn Amirah, published by Dar al-Jeil, Lebanon, Beirut , first edition, 1417 AH, 1997 AD.

47.                        Al-Qazi al-Jurjani by Ali Ibn Muhammad (died in 816 AH). Sharh al-Mawaqif , vol 8, p 369, published by Matba 'ah al-Sa 'adah, Egypt, first edition, 1325 AH, 1907 AD.

48.                        Al-Bukhari al-Ja 'fi by Muhammad Ibn Ismail Abu Abdullah (died in 256 AH). Sahih al-Bukhari, vol 4, p 58, Hadith No 3142. Kitab Farz al-Khums, chapter 18, the chapter of باب مَنْ لَمْ يُخَمِّسِ الأَسْلاَبَ and in the Vol 5, p 100. Kitab al-Maqazi chapter 54, the chapter of ، باب قَوْلِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى ( وَيَوْمَ حُنَيْن... Hadith 4321, research by Mustafa Dib al-Baqa ' published by Dar Ibn Kathir, al0Yamamah – Beirut third edition, 1407 AH, 1987 AD.

49.                        Al-Salihi al-Shami, by Muhammad Ibn Yusuf (died in 942 AH), Subul al-Huda Valrishad Fi Sirah Khair al- 'Ibad, vol 5, p 331, research by Adil abd al-Mawjoud Va Ala Muhammad Moawwaz, published by : Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut first edition, 1414 AH.

50.                        Al-Asqalani al-Shafi 'I by Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar Abu al-Fazl (died in 852 Ah). Fath al-Bari Sharh Sahih Bukhari, vol 8, p 29, research by : Muhib al-Khatib, published by: Dar al-Ma 'rafah – Beirut.

51.                        Al-Eini, by Badr al-Din Mahmoud Ibn Ahmad (died in 855 AH). Umdah al-Qari Sharh al-Bukhari, vol 17, p 299, published by Dar Ehya ' al-Tarath al-Arabi – Beirut.

52.                        Al-Azim Abadi, by Muhammad Shams al-Haqq (died in 1329 AH). 'Un al-Ma 'boud Sharh Sunan Abi Dawoud, vol 7, p 275, published by : Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah Beirut second edition 1995 AH.

53.                        Al-Eini by Badr al-Din Mahmoud Ibn Ahmad (died in 855 AH). 'Umdah al-Qari Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, vol 15, p 68, published by Dar Ehya ' al-Tarath al-Arabi – Beirut.

54.                        Al-Khatib, Abdulkarim, Umar Ibn al-Khattab, vol 186, printed in Egypt, 1961 AH.

55.                        Al-Khatib , by Abdulkarim Ali Ibn Abi Talib Baqiyyah al-Nobuwwah Va Khatam al-Khilafah, p 130 – 133, published in Matba 'ah al-Sinah al-Muhammadiyyah, printed in Egypt, first edition 1386 AH.

56.                        Ibn Abi al-Hadid al-Mada 'ini al-Mu 'tazali, Abu Hamid Ezz al-DinIbn Hibah Allah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad (died in 655 AH). Sharh Nahj al-Bilaqah, vol 13, p 170, research by Muhammad Abdulkarim al-Namri, published by Dar al-Kutub al- 'Ilmiyyah – Beirut – Lebanon, first edition 1418 Ah / 1998 AD.

57.                        Al-Jahiz by Abi Uthman Amrow Ibn Bahr (died in 255 AH). Al-Uthmaniyyah p 230 published by Dar al-Kutub al-Arabi – Egypt.

58.                        Al-Harrani by Ahmad Ibn Abdulhalim Ibn Taymiyah Abu al-Abbas (died in 728 AH). Minhaj al-Sinah al-Nabawiyyah, vol 8, p 79, research by D. Muhammad Rashad Salim, Published by the institute of Qurtabah first edition 1406 AH.

59.                        Al-Harrani by Ahmad Ibn Abdulhalim Ibn Taymiyah Abu al-Abbas (died in 728 AH). Minhaj al-Sinah al-Nabawiyyah, vol 4, p 482, research by D. Muhammad Rashad Salim, published by The institute of Qurtabah, first edition 1406 AH.

 

 



Share
* Name:
* Email:
* Comment :
* Security code:
  

Latest Articles
Most Comments
Most viewed
Index | Contact us | Archive | Search | Link | List Comments | About us | RSS | Mobile |