This question has been come up by: Yadullah Tabraei
Different answers have been given in relation to this marriage:
Contrast and brief answer:
At first, contrast answer can be given:
According to the opinion of the Sunni scholars, the messenger of God has information from the unseen world:
According to the opinion of the Sunni scholars, the messenger of God has information from the unseen world, his marriage and friendship cannot be the reason of the validity of their opinions and behaviors.
The reason is the same reason of marriage of prophet "Nuh" and "Lut" with their wives:
Even if they say that the messenger of God had known het and then he had married her, we would consider the reason of marriage the same reason of marriage of Hazrat Nuh and Hazrat Lut with their wives. However, it has been said that the wives of Hazrat Nuh and Hazrat Lut were in line with their enemies.
The reason was testing the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and people:
We read in the beautiful poem of Hafez:
I have been tired of the breath of the angels; I seek you (God) from the high world.
The honorable messenger of the Islam had the most attention to the high world and the holy rank of God and even as the poet has said, it was difficult for the honorable messenger of the Islam to talk with angels because it was dealing with other persons except God.
God tests everyone in his own situation and to test the messenger of God, he wanted him to marry Aeshe. With such order, he put a person in his house that can test him because testing great people should be as great as their personality.
However, because this test can make some persons misunderstand about the real personality of the wives the messenger of God of the Islam, God has bade some faults and mistakes of the wives of the messenger of God and the wives of the last prophets in order to provide the ground of guide for people.
For example, God introduces the wife of Hazrat Nuh and the wife of Hazrat Lut as two examples for unbelievers in the Tahrim Surah , verse 9; although they were in the house of the prophet , but they went astray.
God has bade about two wives of the messenger of God in verse 4 of this surah
إِنْ تَتُوبَا إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا وَإِنْ تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ مَوْلَاهُ وَجِبْرِيلُ وَصَالِحُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ ظَهِيرٌ
if ye two turn in repentance to Him, your hearts are indeed so inclined; But if ye back up each other against him, truly Allah is his Protector, and Gabriel, and (every) righteous one among those who believe,- and furthermore, the angels - will back (him) up.
Tahrim Surah/ 4
The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) has said some remarks about the future of his wives which can be the factor of recognizing right from false if necessary. For example, the narration that Bokhari has narrated can be referred:
The messenger of God referred to the house of Aeshe and he said three times ' ' riot (test) has happened here; riot (test) has happened here; riot (test) has happened here.
2873 - حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ حَدَّثَنَا جُوَيْرِيَةُ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ قَامَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَطِيبًا فَأَشَارَ نَحْوَ مَسْكَنِ عَائِشَةَ فَقَالَ هُنَا الْفِتْنَةُ ثَلَاثًا مِنْ حَيْثُ يَطْلُعُ قَرْنُ الشَّيْطَانِ
The messenger of God started talking, referred toward the house of Aeshe and he said three times ' ' riot has happened here and it is the same place that the devil nation will appear.
Sahih Bokhari, KetabFarz Al-Khoms, chapter Ma Jaa Fi BoyutAzvaj Al-NabiSalallahoAlaiheVasalam
The marriage of Hazrat Muhammad (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) with her was political reason:
One of purposes of marriages of the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) was political and preaching aspect. In other words, his marriage makes his position established among tribes and his political and social domination becomes more. Therefore, he uses these ways in order to grow and expand the Islam.
Hazrat Muhammad tended to some marriages in order to achieve better social and political positions, to preach the religion of God and its establishment, to unite Arabic large tribes, to prevent from their breaches, to keep the inland policy and to provide a background so that they can become Muslims.
To achieve these purposes, the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) with the following women:
Aeshe, the daughter of Abu Bakr, from the tribe ' ' Tim ' ';
Hafase, the daughter of Umar, from the large tribe ' 'Edi ' ';
Um Habibe , the daughter of Abu Sofyan, from the well known tribe ' ' Bani Omaye ' ';
Um Salame from the tribe ' ' Bani Makhzum ' ';
Sude from the tribe ' ' Bani Asad ' ';
Meimune from the tribe ' ' Bani Helal ' ';
Safir from the tribe ' ' Bani Israeil ' '.
The marriage was the most important social unite and alliance and it left a lot of impact especially in that culture such as Bani Omaye and Bani
The best preventive factor from wars and unity and friendship was marriage in a place that there was war, bloodshed and rapine. And even in the interpretation of Ibn Khaledun, war, bloodshed, and rapine were considered as second characteristics (the introduction Ibn Khaledun ( translation)v 1 p 286).
Hence, the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) married with the large tribes, especially the tribes that were enemy with the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) more than others such as Bani Omaye and Bani Israeil. but he did not marry with the Ansar Tribes that did not make any dangers and they did not have animosity with the prophet ( peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants).
Giur Giu, the Christian writer, has written
Hazrat Muhammad (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants)had Um Habibe marry him so that he can become the brother-in-law of Abu Sofyan and he prevents from the animosity of the Ghoreish Tribe toward himself. As a consequence, the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) became relatives of the dynasty of Bani Omaye, Hend Zan Abu Sofyan and other bloody enemies Um Habibe was very efficient factor for preaching the Islam in the families of Mecca.
Muhammad, the Prophet whom we shall know him again. p 207
As we inform in some parts of the history, the prophet married with different women and only marriage ceremony was done, but he did not have sexual intercourse with them. Even in some cases, he only proposed marriage to some women of tribes.
And they were happy and boated that a woman from their tribe had been called the wife of the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and they obtained such honor. Therefore, their social relationship with the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) became stronger and they became more decisive to defend him.
Um Salame was from the tribe of Bani Makhzum, the tribe of Abu Jahl and Khaled Ben Valid, when the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) had her marry him, Khaled Ben Valid changed her position against the Muslims and after a while, she became Muslim.
After the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants got married Juirie and Safie , there was no any movement from Bani Nazir and Bani Mostalagh against Hazrat Muhammad. on the other hand, as we know, Jurie has been as an exemplary woman since she provided a lot of blessings for her tribe and the companions of the messenger of God ( peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) free a hundred families from the captured persons of her tribe due to the marriage of the prophet ( peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) with her and say ' ' these are the relatives of the messenger of God and it is completely clear that such indebtedness from the Muslims on a tribe can have deep influence on their inner.
Hence, the marriage of the prophet with Aeshe and Hafase was not due to lack of better woman in the society, but it was due to the important interests and it could not be proved except the marriage of the prophet with both of them.