A QUESTION BY; MOHAMMAD JAFAR
One of the verses which has been used by the Sunnites to prove the justice of the whole companions as well as the permanent satisfaction of Allah the Almighty of those who have participated in that event is the verse 18 of the chapter Fateh (The Victory) and Allah the Almighty states in this verse that
لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا . الفتح / 18 .
Certainly Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquility on them and rewarded them with a near victory’’ the chapter Fateh, verse 18
First response; this verse does not encompass all of the companions rather than in the maximum extent it includes those who have participated in the Rezvan allegiance and their number as the Sunnite scholars have quoted was around 1300 to 1400 men as Mohammad Ibn Esmaeil Bokhari writes that
4463 ، عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ كُنَّا يَوْمَ الْحُدَيْبِيَةِ أَلْفًا وَأَرْبَعَ مِائَةٍ .
It has been quoted from Jaber that he said; we were around 1400 men in the day of Hodaybiah
-Sahih Al-Bokhari, v 6 p 45
And this number was around 1.5% or at the maximum 2% comparing the whole companions of the holy prophet of GOD while their numbers was more than 120,000 in the time of His Holiness’ demise. Thus it is not possible to prove the justice of the whole companions as well as the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty of all of them through this verse. Since this is a specific reason of this claim
The second response; the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty does not encompass all of those who have participated in the day of allegiance rather than it includes those who have sworn allegiance by their own true heartily faith. Because Allah the Almighty has declared faith as the prerequisite of His satisfaction ‘’ Allah ‘s satisfaction includes the believers’’ and if this prerequisite was not present then the latter concept would not be provided
If the real faith was not the prerequisite of the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty then GOD has stated that; ‘’ indeed Allah’s satisfaction includes those who sworn allegiance’’
In other words; the most significant thing which will be drawn from this verse is that Allah the Almighty has pleased of the whole believers who sworn allegiance but it never prove that all of those who sworn allegiance were true believers thus Allah the Almighty with the phrase ‘’ from the believers’’ has excluded some hypocrites such as Abd Allah Ibn Abi and… and those he was uncertain of their own faith and have not sworn true allegiance and the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty will not encompass those men, as it does not include those believers who were not present in the day of allegiance
Hence, this verse does not necessarily encompass those individuals such as Omar Ibn Khatab who was in doubt about the prophecy of the holy prophet of GOD and has sworn untrue allegiance at that moment or after that time. The story of the uncertainty of Omar pertaining to the prophecy of the holy prophet of GOD has been mentioned in the majority of the Sunnite books in detail and its short story is as follow
The holy prophet of GOD has saw in a true dream that he was arrived at Mecca along with his own companions while they were performing Haj ceremony around Kaaba (the temple of Mecca) and the next morning His Holiness stated his own dream to his companions and the companions asked His Holiness pertaining to the interpretation of this dream then His Holiness stated that; we will arrive at Mecca and will perform the Omrah ceremony, GOD willing. But His Holiness did not set a date for the occurrence of that event
All of the people became ready to move and when they reached to Hodaybiah then Qoraysh became aware of the real intent of the arrival of the holy prophet of GOD and his companions then all of them took up arms and stopped Moslems to enter the city. Since the holy prophet of GOD’s real intent was to go on a pilgrimage and not to fight, then His Holiness signed a peace pact with Qoraysh in order not to enter Mecca this year and the next year they will be allowed to come back and perform Omrah ceremony with no problem. This issue was hard to understand by Omar Ibn Khattab and his followers then they became uncertain about the prophecy of the holy prophet of GOD and Allah the Almighty save us, they thought that the holy prophet of GOD has told lie thus, they came to the presence of the holy prophet of GOD and opposed His Holiness with harsh remarks. Zahabi has quoted the story in the book the history of Islam in such a manner that
... فقال عمر : والله ما شككت منذ أسلمت إلا يومئذ ، فأتيت النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم فقلت : يا رسول الله ، ألست نبي الله قال : بلى قلت : ألسنا على الحق وعدونا على الباطل قال : بلى قلت : فلم نعطي الدنية في ديننا إذا قال : إني رسول الله ولست أعصيه وهو ناصري . قلت : أولست كنت تحدثنا أنا سنأتي البيت فنطوف حقا قال : بلى ، أفأخبرتك أنك تأتيه العام قلت : لا . قال : فإنك آتيه ومطوف به ... .
Omar said; I swear to GOD that, from the time I have become Moslem I never doubt about the prophecy of the holy prophet unless this day then he came to the presence of the holy prophet and said; O the holy prophet of GOD, unless you are the prophet of GOD? The holy prophet of GOD stated that; Yes, I am. Omar said; are not right and our enemies are wrong? The holy prophet of GOD stated that; Yes. It is. Omar said; why we demonstrate humility and lowness in our own religion? The holy prophet of GOD stated that; I am the prophet of GOD, and I never disobey His commands and He is my helper. Omar said; unless you said that we will enter the temple of Kaaba and perform Haj ceremony? The holy prophet of GOD stated; have I said that we will do that this year? Omar said; No. then the holy prophet of GOD stated that; you will enter the temple of Kaaba and will perform Haj ceremony
-Tarikh Al-Eslam, Al-Zahabi, v 2 p 371- 372, Sahih Ibn Haban, Ibn Haban, v 11 p 224, Al-Mosnef, Abd Al-Razagh Al-Sanaani, v 5 p 339- 340, Al-Mojam Al-Kabir, Al-Tabarani, Al-Tabarani, v 20 p 14, Tafsir Al-Thalabi, Al-Thalabi, v 9 p 60, Al-Dor Al-Manthur, Jalal Al-Din Al-Siuti, v 6 p 77, Tarikh Medina Damascus, Ibn Asaker, v 57, p 229, ...
It is interesting that, Omar has not trusted in the statement of the holy prophet of GOD and in order to make sure he went to his own permanent friend Abu Bakr and he said the same thing he heard from His Holiness and more interestingly, Abu Bakr has said the same sentence as the holy prophet of GOD stated to him
This narration has been quoted by both Bokhari and Moslem but as usual they have omitted the phrase; Omar said; I swear to GOD that, from the time I have become Moslem I never doubt about the prophecy of the holy prophet unless this day, and have quoted the narration as they liked
-R.K :Sahih Al-Bokhari, v 4 p 70, v 6 p 45, Sahih Moslem, v 5 p 175
Mohammad Ibn Omar Vaqedi one of the Sunnite famous historian writes that
. . . فكان ابن عباس رضي اللّه عنه يقول : قال لي في خلافته ]يعني عمر[ وذكر القضية : إرتبت ارتياباً لم أرتبه منذ أسلمت إلا يومئذ ، ولو وجدت ذاك اليوم شيعة تخرج عنهم رغبة عن القضية لخرجت .
Ibn Abbass says that; Omar Ibn Khatab has mentioned the event of Hodaybiah in the age of his own Caliphate and said that; in that day I was uncertain about the prophecy of the holy prophet of GOD for the first time since the time I became Moslem I never doubt about His Holiness and if I have found some men who would obey me to violate that contract then I have violated that pact as well
Vaqedi writes in the quotation of Abu Saeed Khadri that Omar said to him
... والله لقد دخلني يومئذٍ من الشك حتى قلت في نفسي : لو كنا مائة رجلٍ على مثل رأيي ما دخلنا فيه أبداً ! .
-Ketab Al-Maghazi, Al-Vaghedi, v 1 p 144, chapter Ghazvat Al-Hodaibiye, according to the software of Al-Maktabat Al-Shamelat, Al-Esdar Al-Thani, You can find this book in this site: http://www.alwarraq.com
You can find this book in this website as well
I swear to GOD that I was in a great doubt that I said to myself that; if 100 men have agreed with me then we would never accept that pact.
Then will Allah the Almighty be please with such a man for a long time? Is it possible to make peace between the lack of inward faith in the prophecy of the holy prophet of GOD as well as uncertainty pertaining to that issue and the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty of such a person?
The third question; this satisfaction cannot be permanent and everlasting or to guarantee to have a happy ending of all of those who were present there since, at the most, this verse will prove that Allah the Almighty was pleased with them only at the time of allegiance and the real reason of this satisfaction was the allegiance has been sworn at that day only
In other words, this satisfaction will be remain until its reason that means the allegiance, promise and contract will be remain as well and no alteration or change occur. Since the existence of effect with no existence of cause is an impossible thing
The satisfaction of Allah the Almighty of the people is only due to the action that they have done and that person without that act will not be included in satisfaction of GOD it means that as long as that act exists then that person is included in the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty but when that person cause to vanish that act via his faults and sins then the satisfaction of Allah the Almighty will be terminated
The best reason for this point is the verse has been revealed by Allah the Almighty pertaining to the same promise and allegiance
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَن نَّكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنكُثُ عَلىَ نَفْسِهِ وَ مَنْ أَوْفىَ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا . الفتح / 10 .
‘’Surely those who swear allegiance to you do but swear allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands. Therefore whoever breaks his faith, he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, he will grant him a mighty reward’’
In this verse Allah the Almighty has explicitly stated that; if someone breaks the promise which has made to GOD then he has harmed himself and Allah the Almighty will grant the reward of this allegiance to whoever has kept his promise with no doubt
Therefore, this verse merely encompasses those who have sworn allegiance at that day they have kept that promise until the end of their own lives and if this satisfaction was permanent and everlasting then for what reason Allah the Almighty stated that; Therefore whoever breaks his faith, he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul’’. Then does not seem meaningless and useless to say such a sentence?
This point can be drawn from various narrations as well, as Anas Ibn Malek quotes in the book Al-Mouta that
عَنْ أَبِي النَّضْرِ مَوْلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ أَنَّهُ بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ لِشُهَدَاءِ أُحُدٍ هَؤُلَاءِ أَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ فَقَالَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقُ أَلَسْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ بِإِخْوَانِهِمْ أَسْلَمْنَا كَمَا أَسْلَمُوا وَجَاهَدْنَا كَمَا جَاهَدُوا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ بَلَى وَلَكِنْ لَا أَدْرِي مَا تُحْدِثُونَ بَعْدِي فَبَكَى أَبُو بَكْرٍ ثُمَّ بَكَى ... .
While the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) referred to the martyrs of Ohod battles stated that; I bear witness that these were my brothers as well as good men, then Abu Bakr said; were not their brothers? We became Moslems and participated in Jihad (the holy war) as they became Moslem and attended in this war. The holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) stated that; Yes. But I am not sure what you are going to do with the religion of GOD? Abu Bakr started to cry as he heard this thing
This narration explicitly states that the happy ending of Abu Bakr provided that he will not break his own promise and do not commit some acts which resulted in the anger of Allah the Almighty instead of His satisfaction
The fourth response; some of the companions who participated in this allegiance have acknowledged to break that allegiance such a Bara Ibn Azeb, Abu Saeed Khadri and Ayeshah
A, Bara Ibn Azeb
Bokhari writes in his own Sahih that
عَنْ الْعَلَاءِ بْنِ الْمُسَيَّبِ عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ لَقِيتُ الْبَرَاءَ بْنَ عَازِبٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا فَقُلْتُ طُوبَى لَكَ صَحِبْتَ النَّبِيَّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَبَايَعْتَهُ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَقَالَ يَا ابْنَ أَخِي إِنَّكَ لَا تَدْرِي مَا أَحْدَثْنَا بَعْدَهُ .
Ala Ibn Mosayeb has quoted from his father that; I saw Bara Ibn Azeb and I said to him; good for you who has lived in the age of the holy prophet of GOD and sworn allegiance to His Holiness under the tree. Then Bara Ibn Azeb said; my brother’s son. You do not know what innovations we have made after the holy prophet of GOD?
-Sahih Al-Bokhari, v 5 p 65, hadith 4170, Ketab Al-Maghazi, chapter Ghazvat Al-Hodaibe
Bara Ibn Azeb was one of the great companions who have participated in the allegiance under that tree testified that he and the others who were present in that event had made numerous innovations and this is the best mark which implies that the satisfaction of GOD pertaining to those who sworn allegiance in Hodabyah was not permanent and everlasting
B, the acknowledgment of Abi Saeed Khadri
Ibn Hojr Asqalani writes in Al-Esabah that
عن العلاء بن المسيب عن أبيه عن أبي سعيد قلنا له هنيئا لك برؤية رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وصحبته قال إنك لا تدري ما أحدثنا بعده .
Ala Ibn Mosayeb quotes from his father that he has quoted from Abi Saeed that they have said to Abi Saeed; good for you since you have seen the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) as well as you were one of His Holiness’ companions. Abu Saeed said that; you do not know what innovations we have made after the holy prophet of GOD.
-Al-Esabat, Ibn Hajar, v 3 p 67, Al-Kamel, Abdullah Ben Ada, v 3 p 63, ....
Zahabi writes in the book Sayr Alam Al-Nabla that
عن قيس ، قال : قالت عائشة... إني أحدثت بعد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم حدثا ، ادفنوني مع أزواجه . فدفنت بالبقيع رضي الله عنها
It has been quoted from Qays that; Ayeshah was saying; I have made too many innovations after the holy prophet of GOD (peace and bless of GOD be upon him and his progeny) then she said; bury my body along with the wives of the holy prophet of GOD so she was buried in Baqi
-Seir Alam Al-Nobala, Al-Zahabi, v 2 p 193, Al-Tabaghat Al-Kobra, Muhammad Ben Sad, v 8 p 74, Tarjome Aeshe, Al-Mosanef, Ibn Abi Sheibe Al-Kufi, v 8 p 708, ...
Hakem Nayshaburi has quoted this narration as well and then he says that
هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ولم يخرجاه .
-Al-Mostadrak Ala Al-Sahihin, Al-Hakem, v 4 p 6
And Zahabi has accepted the his view in the book Talkhis Al-Mostadrak
Now with respect to the acknowledgments of the great companions pertaining to their religious innovations after the holy prophet of GOD then is it possible to say that this holy verse will encompass all of the companions as well as implies in the permanent satisfaction of GOD pertaining to them?
The fifth response; the attributes of Allah the Almighty are of two types; the attributes of essence and the attributes of act. And the attributes of essence are everlasting and permanent while the attributes of act are not of these kinds rather than they will be present in some time and be absent in another time as Fakhr Razi says pertaining to this case that
والفرق بين هذين النوعين من الصفات وجوه . أحدها : أن صفات الذات أزلية ، وصفات الفعل ليست كذلك . وثانيها : أن صفات الذات لا يمكن أن تصدق نقائضها في شيء من الأوقات ، وصفات الفعل ليست كذلك . وثالثها : أن صفات الفعل أمور نسبية يعتبر في تحققها صدور الآثار عن الفاعل ، وصفات الذات ليست كذلك .
And there are some differences between these two attributes of Allah the Almighty (essence and act) 1, the attributes of essence of Allah are permanent and everlasting while the attributes of act are not so. 2, the opposite of the attributes of essence are impossible forever (such as ignorance against knowledge) but the attributes of act are not like this. 3, the attributes of act are relative attributes and sometimes will be realized via their manifestation in the effects of that act but the attributes of essence are no so (rather than they are certain, absolute, permanent and everlasting)
-Tafsir Al-Razi, Al-Razi, v 4 p 75
And when the issues of satisfaction and anger attributed to Allah the Almighty means then imply in reward and punishment and not those senses which appear in a being since it is not possible that Allah the Almighty undergoes some events and senses. Therefore the satisfaction and anger are among the attributes of act and not the attributes of essence. And when they are among the attributes of act then they are not permanent
Ibn Hojr Asqalani says pertaining to this issue that
ومعنى قوله ولا يرضى أي لا يشكره لهم ولا يثيبهم عليه فعلى هذا فهي صفة فعل .
The meaning of this comment ‘’ not satisfied’’ is that He will not thank those for doing something and will not reward them and if so, this act of Allah the Almighty will be one of the attributes of act of GOD
-Fatah Al-Bari, Ibn Hajar, v 11 p 350
This verse does not encompass all of the companions rather than it includes the believers who have attended in that event and have kept that allegiance until the end of their own lives
THE BOARD OF ADDRESSING THE RELIGIOUS DOUBTS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF HIS HOLINESS VALIASR ( IMAM OF THE AGE) MAY GOD PRECIPITATE HIS BLESSING REAPPEARANCE