THE ELABORATION OF THE QUESTION
Ehsan Elahi Zahir writes that
كان عليّ أحد المستشارين المقرّبين إليه، يشترك في قضايا الدولة وأمور الناس ، ويشير عليه بالأنفع والأصلح حسب فهمه ورأيه... لا يمنعه مانع ولا يعوقه عائق، يصلّي خلفه ويعمل بأوامره، ويقضي بقضاياه، ويستدلّ بأحكامه ويستند .
Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was one of the eminent advisor of Omar and he cooperated with him in all of the government issues and public affairs and he presented the best and the most precious advices to him and in this issue nothing could stop him and he performed prayer behind Omar and obeyed his order as well
In order to make evident this issue we have to probe all of the narrations one by one which imply that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has performed prayers behind the Qaliphs
THE FIRST NARRATION
1 . روى الطبرسى في الاحتجاج: وحضر المسجد وصلّى خلف أبي بكر .
-Al-Ehtejaj : 1/ 126, va Anho Fi Behar Al-Anvar, 29/ 127, hadith 27, Medina Al-Moajez: 3/ 152
Firstly; the proof of this narration is authentic since Tabarsi has quoted this narration directly and with no referral to any mediator’s name from Hemad Ibn Othman from Imam Sadeq (peace be upon him) while Hemad Ibn Othman was died in 190 Hejrah and Tabarsi was died in 548 Hejrah as well
Secondly; it seems that the source of the narration of Tabarsi is a saying from the interpretation of Qomi who has quoted that from his father Ebrahim Ibn Hashem from Ibn Abi Omayr, from Othman Ibn Esa and from Hemad Ibn Esa from Imam Sadeq (peace be upon him), however there is no problem in terms of its proof but it proves something else in terms of denotation
The narration has been mentioned in the interpretation of Qomin in such a way that
He was presented in the mosque and stood behind Abi Bakr but he performed the prayer individually
Thirdly; it has been mentioned in the same narration that Abu Bakr with advice of Omar ordered Khaled Ibn Valid to murder Ali with his sword during the prayer but before finishing the prayer he became regretful and said before saying the finishing Salam of the prayer that
يا خالد لا تفعل ما أمرتك به .
O Khaled do not perform what has I have ordered you
And the Sunite cannot resort to the concept of this narration at all if they make efforts to prove Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has performed prayer behind the Qaliphs then they have to accept the terrorist acts of their own Qaliphs as well since it is not acceptable to accept the concept of a section of the narration and reject the concept of the other section of the same narration since they become the clear mark of the verse; they believe in some verses of the holy book and they do not believe in the other verses
And it is so interesting that the same point has been quoted by Samani one of the Sunnite great scholars in the translation of Ravajen of master Bokhari that
حديث أبي بكر رضي اللّه عنه : أنّه قال : «لا يفعل خالد ما أمر به. سألت الشريف عمر ابن إبراهيم الحسيني بالكوفة عن معنى هذا الأثر فقال : كان أمر خالد بن الوليد أن يقتل عليّاً ، ثم ندم بعد ذلك ، فنهى عن ذلك .
THE SECOND NARRATION
وفي نوادر أحمد بن عيسى الأشعري عن عثمان بن عيسى ، عن سماعة ، قال : سألته عليه السلام عن مناكحتهم والصلاة معهم ؟ فقال : هذا أمر تمديد إن يستطيعوا ذاك ، قد أنكح رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله ، وصلى علي عليه السلام وراءهم
This narration has been quoted by Shakh Hor Ameli (may GOD be pleased with him) in the book Vasael in the chapter of
It means with respect to the conservative measures (Taqiah) and when the life, the property and the family of a man are in danger then it is Mostahab (not obligatory and religious precepts) and he can participate in the Moslem prayer behind a man while performing prayer is not lawful behind him
And also Allamah Majlesi has quoted (may GOD be pleased with him) in the book Behar pertaining to the chapter of the marriage to the unbelievers, the infidels, the opponents and the believers of the other holy books.
Thus this narration does not aid the Sunnite to gain their intended goals
Since there is the issue of obligation and reluctance in the matter of Taqiah and if a man was forced then he is allowed to accept the marriage of his daughter to an unbeliever or an infidel, still less for that pertaining a man who considers himself as a Moslem and performs the prayer 5 times a day
THE THIRD NARRATION
روى الحميري عن جعفر ، عن أبيه قال : كان الحسن والحسين عليهم السلام يقرآن خلف الإمام .
And also it has been mentioned in the book Vasael that
عبد الله بن جعفر في (قرب الإسناد) عن الحسن بن ظريف ، عن الحسين بن علوان ، عن جعفر ، عن أبيه قال : كان الحسن والحسين عليهما السلام يقرآن خلف الامام .
The late Allamah Majlesi in the definition of the word’’ Imam’’ of this narration says that
«خلف الإمام» أي أئمة الجور الذين كانوا في زمانهما عليهما السلام ...
The purpose of Imam in this narration is the same as the oppressive leaders who have taken the power in the age of that His Holinesses, Yes, Imam Hasan and Imam Hossein (peace be upon them) were standing behind them but they did not considered them as a just leader (Eqteda) and they have performed their own prayer individually
The participation in their Moslem prayers in the common time and day was Mostahab Movakad (religious precepts which has been recommended) as the majority of the scholars believe in that matter as well as the narrations have admitted that and in the time of Taqiah the participation of those Holinesses was a Vajeb (obligatory) act of course if it was possible at first he should perform his prayers in his own house and then to participate in their Moslem prayers and if it was not possible he take part in the Moslem prayers but perform his own prayer individually and recite the prayer as well
-Al-Shia va Ahle Al-Beit: 61
-Tafsir Al-Ghomi: 2/ 158, 159, Tafsir Nur Al-Thaghalein: 4/ 188
-Al-Ansabm, Samaani: 3/ 95, Dar Al-Janan, Beirut, 6/ 170, Published by: Muhammad Amin Damej, Beirut, 1400 hejira
-Al-Navader, 129, Vasael Al-Shia (Ale Al-Beit), v 8 p 301, hadith 10726
-Vasael Al-Shia (Ale Al-Beit), v 8 p 299
-Bahar Al-Anvar, v 100 p 375
-Ghorb Al-Asnad, p 114, hadith 7
-Vasael Al-Shia (Ale Al-Beit), v 8 p 366, Vasael Al-Shia (Al-Eslamiye), v 5 p 430, Jame Ahadith Al-Shia, v 6 p 503
THE BOARD OF ADDRESSING THE RELIGIOUS DOUBTS
THE RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF HIS HOLINESS IMAM OF THE AGE
(MAY GOD PRECIPITATE HIS BLESSING REAPPEARANCE)